Physics Today Daily Edition
Ars Technica: Subduction zones occur where oceanic crust is forced down under continental crust. As the subducted material is pushed toward the mantle, it melts into magma. The amount of water present in the different layers of the rock affects how quickly pockets of magma form. Rock that formed more recently is still warm, which means that it doesn't have to descend as far down into the mantle to start heating up and become dehydrated. Kristina Walowski of the University of Oregon and her colleagues, who have collected minerals from volcanos in the southern region of the Cascades, have confirmed that the subducted plate there is quite young. However, a simulation based on the isotopes in the minerals suggests that the water escaped the rock well before it reached the depth at which magma forms. That led Walowski's team to adjust the model to incorporate water trapped at the bottom layer of the crust. That reservoir of water leads to the formation of magma, and the ratios of other elements in the minerals in the Cascades support the idea that a young oceanic plate is being turned into magma there.
Nature: A deal between Germany's ruling political parties would provide €5 billion ($5.4 billion) to extend the nation's Excellence Initiative until 2028. Currently set to expire in 2017, the initiative provides funding to the nation's top-performing universities and early-career researchers. Since 2006, the initiative has created 20 000 new science jobs. The details of the funding have not been finalized, but are expected to be released in January after a review of the performance of the initiative so far.
MIT Technology Review: Normal fermentation processes rely on microorganisms, which produce enzymes that convert sugars into usable products, among them hydrogen gas for fuel cells. Now, Percival Zhang of Virginia Tech and his colleagues have developed a hydrogen creation technique that uses enzymes alone. In the group's experiments, the technique produced three times as much hydrogen as did conventional fermentation. Their demonstration used just a 2-ml reactor vessel, but the process appears to be nearly as fast and energy efficient as current, microorganism-based ones. To scale their process up for commercialization, the researchers must find a way to reduce the cost of the enzymes used.
BBC: The European Space Agency's Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mapped Earth's gravitational field from 2009 to 2013. Now that map is being used to look for clues about the internal structure of Earth's crust. Subtle variations in gravitation can be evaluated to find the borders between rock formations and areas where the crust is thinnest, both of which are potential locations for geothermal activity. Such data have been used by geothermal prospectors before, but never at a global scale nor with the resolution that GOCE has provided.