Physics Today Daily Edition
Nature: Imad Ahmad Barghouthi, a theorist who studies space-plasma physics at Al-Quds University in Jerusalem, was detained without charges on 6 December 2014 as he crossed the border from the West Bank into Jordan. In response to Barghouthi's detainment, several international science organizations have sent letters of protest to the Israeli government and to European organizations that provide research funds to Israel. Barghouthi was on his way to Amman to catch a flight to the United Arab Emirates so that he could attend a meeting of the Arab Union of Astronomy and Space Sciences in Sharjah. Since his arrest, he has been held in an Israeli military prison without being charged under a policy that allows Israel to hold a potential security risk for three months. Jawad Boulos, Barghouthi's lawyer, believes that Barghouthi was detained because of statements he made in support of Palestinian activists during Israel's 2014 invasion of the Gaza Strip. Barghouthi is now scheduled to be released on 2 February, but could be held longer.
Science: The US Senate voted 98 to 1 to approve an amendment to the Keystone XL Pipeline bill that says climate change is real and not a hoax . Proposed by Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI), the amendment was one of several put forward by opponents of the pipeline, which would bring oil from Canada to the US. However, it was the only one to be approved. Other amendments that further stated that climate change was directly influenced by human activity and pollution had also been proposed. The Keystone XL bill is heavily supported by Republicans, many of whom have dodged the issue of climate change by saying they aren't scientists. Some, such as James Inhofe (R-OK), had called climate change a "hoax" in the past. Before the vote, Inhofe clarified that statement by saying the hoax is that people think that humanity can change the climate.
Science: Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) is a greenhouse gas that persists in the atmosphere for 50 000 to 100 000 years. It is commonly produced by the weathering of granite and other metamorphic rocks by rainfall. Now Daniel Deeds of the US Geological Survey and his colleagues have discovered that CF4 is also produced by tectonic activity. Surprised to find the chemical in groundwater samples collected near an active fault in the Mojave Desert, the researchers then examined 14 samples taken from aquifers along part of the San Andreas Fault. All but one of the samples showed higher CF4 levels than did water that had been exposed to the air. That suggested the gas was being absorbed from stone deep underground. The researchers also found that the samples from closer to the fault had higher concentrations of the gas than did those from farther away. Whether the CF4 is produced by the fracturing of rocks during earthquakes or by pressure stresses is not clear. However, the discovery that CF4 levels are not exclusively tied to weathering means they are no longer a reliable indicator of past changes in climate.