ABOUT INTELLIGENCE: Not all intelligence is easy to quantify. Qualities that fall under the label of intelligence include abstract thought, communication, reasoning, problem solving, and more. Tests or observation can evaluate some measures of these qualities, but not all. IQ (intelligence quotient) tests are sometimes used to estimate intelligence, but researchers find inconsistencies in the relationship of these test scores to academic achievement, job performance, and income. Psychology experts researched the concept of an emotional quotient (EQ) beginning in the late 1980s. It is also difficult to evaluate, but many businesses use EQ tests to help evaluate job candidates. There is uncertainty about how much EQ contributes to the ability to solve problems and interact with people, as well as how much of it is innate and how much can be learned.
ABOUT SOCIOLOGY: Sociology is a social science that studies the behavior of people, groups, and societies in terms of their social interactions. This includes strangers passing on the street and international processes. It includes other disciplines such as history, psychology and economics, as well as following social groups as they move through time.
The American Sociological Association contributed to the information contained in the TV portion of this report.