WERNER HEISENBERG (1901 - 1976)

was one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century. He is best known as a founder of quantum mechanics, the new physics of the atomic world, and especially for the uncertainty principle in quantum theory. He is also known for his controversial role as a leader of Germany's nuclear fission research during World War II. After the war he was active in elementary particle physics and West German science policy.

Note: This is a textual version of this exhibit. Our graphical exhibit is here.
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The Early Years:
Family Matters
High School Student
The Youth Movement

Student Years:
University Student
The Sad Story of Heisenberg's Doctorate
Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Mechanic
The Uncertainty Principle
Triumph of the Copenhagen Interpretation

The Difficult Years:
Professor in Leipzig
Heading Fission Research
The Post-War Era: Reviving German Science
"Physics and Philosophy"
"Physik und Philosophie"

More Information:
Brief Chronology
Further Reading
Index of Site Topics and Special Features

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This site is brought to you by David C. Cassidy, Hofstra University, and by the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics. Site created 11/98, revised 1/02. Bibliography of Heisenberg's Writings, by David Cassidy, added 3/01.

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1998 - American Institute of Physics and David Cassidy. One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843. E-mail: aipinfo@aip.org . Phone: 301-209-3100; Fax: 301-209-0843.