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Student Years: 1920 - 1927
Heisenberg's First Paper

The first page of Heisenberg's first published paper. The paper was received by the Zeitschrift für Physik on December 17, 1921, and published in 1922. This photo is taken from the facsimile reprint in Heisenberg, Gesammelte Werke/Collected Works, vol. A1, W. Blum et al., eds. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1985), 134-158. The paper is quite technical, dealing with the so-called anomalous Zeeman effect in atomic spectroscopy. No English translation exists.

For a general account of the paper and its historical context, see:

  • D. Cassidy, Uncertainty, chapt. 7.

Technical accounts:

  • D. Cassidy, "Heisenberg's First Paper," Physics Today, 31, no. 7 (1978), 23-28.
  • D. Cassidy, "Heisenberg's First Core Model of the Atom: The Development of a Professional Style." Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences, 10, (1979), 187-224.

The Sad Story of Heisenberg's Doctorate


University Student

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Heisenberg's First Paper

The Old Quantum Theory



About this Exhibit

1998 - American Institute of Physics and David Cassidy ()