Quantum Mechanics: 1925-1927
The Uncertainty Relations
Further Reading


Don't miss this cartoon, "Lil' Werner" by Aaron Diaz.

Hear Hans Bethe talk briefly about Bohr and quantum mechanics. And here's a set of Bethe lectures: personal perspectives on quantum physics (video or audio)

A 14-page essay on the Origins of Quantum Theory by Cathryn Carson (PDF)

A biography of Max Planck, who originated quantum theory.

There are many good places on the Web explaining the physics, for example:

Todd's Intro to Quantum Mechanics A well-illustrated introduction.

Some Basic Ideas About Quantum Mechanics A brief summary.

What Is Quantum Theory About? Another brief summary.

Visual Quantum Mechanics A more thorough explanation.

Measurement in Quantum Mechanics FAQ summary on the measurement problem.

Philosophy of the Uncertainty Principle Technical discussion from Stanford's Encyclopedia of Philosophy; see also their Quantum Mechanics article for advanced students.


Gribbin, John, In Search of Schrödinger's Cat (London: Bantam, 1984).

Gribbin, John, Schrödinger's Kittens (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1995).

Moore, Walter, Schrödinger: Life and Thought (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

Cassidy, David, "Heisenberg, Uncertainty and the Quantum Revolution." Scientific American, 266 (May 1992), 106-112.

Cassidy, David, Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1992), chapter 12.


Jammer, Max, The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1966), chapters 5-7.

Jammer, Max, The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1974).

Mehra, Jagdish and Helmut Rechenberg, The Historical Development of Quantum Theory (New York: Springer-Verlag, 1982), volumes 4, 5.

Pais, Abraham. 'Subtle is the Lord...' The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1982), pp. 440-449.


Triumph of the Copenhagen Interpretation


The Uncertainty Principle

More Info:

The Uncertainty Relations

Derivation of Uncertainty Relations

The Gamma-Ray Microscope

Implications of Uncertainty

What Good Is It?

Heisenberg Speaking on the Origins of Uncertainty

Further Reading



About this Exhibit

1998 - American Institute of Physics and David Cassidy ()