The Difficult Years
Fission Research 1939-1945
Further Reading

LINKS TO WEB EXHIBITS AND RESOURCES relating to fission and nuclear weapons are in our physics history links page . The following sites have more information on the project on the Atom-Museum at Haigerloch web site (in German, with English interview with Heisenberg).

Badash, Lawrence, Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons: From Fission to Limited Test Ban Treaty 1939-1963 (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1995).

Beyerchen, Alan D., Scientists under Hitler: Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977). 

Cassidy, David, Uncertainty: The Life and Science of Werner Heisenberg. (New York: W.H. Freeman, 1992), chapters 22-25.

Cassidy, D., "Heisenberg, German Science, and the Third Reich." Social Research, 59 (Fall 1992), 643-661.

Reprinted in: The Politics of Western Science, 1640-1990. Margaret C. Jacob, ed. (New Jersey: Humanities Press, 1992), pp. 157-175.
German in: Naturwissenschaft und Technik in der Geschichte. Helmuth Albrecht, ed. (Stuttgart: Verlag f. Gesch. d. Naturwiss. u. Technik, 1993), pp. 65-80.
Cassidy, D., "Heisenberg, Uncertainty and the Quantum Revolution." Scientific American, 266 (May 1992), 106-112. Translated in the foreign editions of Scientific American. 

Goudsmit, Samuel, Alsos (1947; reissued, New York: AIP Press, 1996).

Heisenberg, W., Gesammelte Werke/Collected Works. W. Blum et al., eds. (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1984-), Vol. A2, pp. 378-601, Heisenberg's declassified war-time research papers on nuclear fission; and Vol. B, pp. 414-441, Heisenberg's post-war accounts of his work.

Powers, Thomas, Heisenberg's War: The Secret History of the German Bomb (London: Jonathan Cape, 1993).

Rhodes, Richard, The Making of the Atomic Bomb (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986).

Rose, Paul Lawrence, Heisenberg and the Nazi Atomic Bomb Project: A Study in German Culture (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).

Walker, Mark, German National Socialism and the Quest for Nuclear Power 1939-1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

Walker, Mark, Nazi Science: Myth, Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb (New York: Plenum Publishers, 1995).

Christian Kleint and Gerald Wiemers, eds., Werner Heisenberg in Leipzig 1927-1942 (Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Math-naturw. Klasse, 58, Heft 2) (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1993)

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1998 - American Institute of Physics and David Cassidy ()