Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics
Minutes of Meeting
October 16-17, 1981
The Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics met at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Washington, DC on the evening of 16 October and the morning of 17 October 1981. For clarity in presentation with reference to the printed agenda, events recorded here are not necessarily in the same chronological order in which they occurred.
Members Present: N. F. Ramsey – Chairman, R. P. Bauman (AAPT), R. T. Beyer (ASA), B. E. Bjarngard (AAPM), P. B. Boyce (AAS), J. A. Burton (APS), R. B. Clark (AAPT), A. J. DeMaria (OSA), C. B. Duke (AVS), J. P. Glusker (MAL), M. Goldhaber (APS), J. C. Johnson (ex officio), W. H. Kelly (AAPT), H. W. Koch (ex officio), R. P. Madden (OSA), M. H. Mueller (ACA), Y. H. Pao (MAL), J. W. Quinn (OSA), A. L. Schawlow (APS), E. A. G. Shaw (ASA), M. Strasberg (ASA), A. A. Strassenburg (AAPT), J. L. Vossen, Jr. (AVS), H. F. Weaver (AAS)
Absent: E. B. Bagley (SOR), W. W. Havens, Jr. (APS), D. Lazarus (APS), R. E. Marshak (APS)
Nonvoting Participants: A. Csillag (AAPT), R. G. Fuller (AAPT), R. M. Grant, Jr. (AAPT), R. K. Hobbie (AAPT), T. C. Ingoldsby (AAPT), *Q. C. Johnson (ACA), J. W. Layman (AAPT), K. E. Mays (AAPT), J. S. Rigden (AAPT)
Guests: *H. H. Barschall, Editor Physical Review C, for Item 5; H. R. Crane, Past Chairman; *M. Day, Director National Technical Information Service, for Item 6; *E. Hutchisson, Past Director; *S. Kirkpatrick, IBM Research Center at Yorktown Heights, for Item 7; **W. J. Lehrfeld, AIP Tax Attorney, for Item 8; P. M. Morse, Chairman AIP Committee for Public Policy; *R. W. Schmitt, Chairman AIP Advisory Committee on Corporate Associates, for Item 4a
AIP Staff: H. W. Koch, Director; J. C. Johnson, Secretary; G. F. Gilbert, Treasurer; R. H. Marks, Associate Director for Publishing; L. Slack, Associate Director for Educational Services; **J. Auliano, Data Processing Manager, for Item 9e; **B. Dolowich, Controller, for Item 9c; L. T. Merrill, Assistant to the Director; N. A. Davis, Assistant to the Secretary
1. Convene – Roll Call
The meeting was called to order at 7:35 p.m. by Chairman Ramsey, following dinner. Ramsey welcomed the former Chairmen present (Crane and Morse) and the former Director present (Hutchisson).
2. Minutes of Governing Board Meeting of 27-28 March 1981
J. C. Johnson submitted the minutes for approval; Beyer seconded. Upon call of the Chairman the minutes of the 27-28 March 1981 meeting of the Governing Board were approved by consensus.
3. Report of Chairman (given following Item 4.)
Chairman Ramsey reported that operations have been active and progress has been made. He specifically mentioned 1) the need for a new Committee on Constitution and Bylaws, to cover the possible enlargement of the Executive Committee and the Memorandum of Agreement with Member Societies; 2) change in The Physics of Fluids editorship; 3) publication of three issues of Chinese Physics; 4) major increase in journal fees; 5) increase in copying fees; 6) appointment of a Controller; and 7) success of the Anniversary Handbook (Physics Vade Mecum), first distributed at the Corporate Associates meeting.
4. Comments on Corporate Associates Meeting
Report of Corporate Associates Advisory Committee – R. W. Schmitt, Chairman
Schmitt noted at the beginning of his report that he had been Chairman for three years, this year being the last. He felt the chairmanship should be rotated in the future. In three years the number of Corporate Associates has grown from 104 to 118, without a major effort to recruit new Associates. Three annual meetings have been held during his chairmanship: the first at GE in Schenectady, the second at Bell Labs, and the third at the National Academy of Sciences. He has tried to structure the meetings to appeal simultaneously to government, industry, and university department chairmen. National policy issues covering scientific frontiers have been discussed. Visits to labs have been a special feature. He noted that certain criticisms have been expressed; for example, Duke had received a comment that too much management detail was given, rather than policy matters, and that there had not been as many small discussion groups as some would have liked. Schmitt commented that the logistics on this kind of event are difficult; he felt that timely topics had been discussed. His feeling is that it is good to have emerging topics which are useful for this group to discuss.
Improvements needed in the Corporate Associates program would include soliciting more nominations and considering more publicity.
Schmitt reported that two invitations have been received for 1982: one at Sandia Labs and the other at McDonnell-Douglas in St. Louis. There is one invitation for 1983 (Xerox on the West Coast) and one for 1984 (Exxon, by which time their new laboratory will be ready). He feels that a meeting should be held on the West Coast every three or four years; he expects a proposition for the Governing Board to go out there.
Koch mentioned that Havens had made the suggestion that the institutions of Governing Board members who are on the West Coast might pay half their expenses to the Corporate Associates meetings. Goldhaber thought that perhaps there was not enough West Coast representation to justify this. Koch remarked that it was up to the Societies.
On the matter of journal subscriptions for Corporate Associates members, Schmitt reported that the practice has been to give up to six gratis subscriptions annually, plus Physics Today, depending on the dues. The conclusion reached at the breakfast meeting of the Advisory Committee on Corporate Associates was to ask that part of the dues be devoted to journal subscriptions.
One minor issue discussed was that of the gratis copying license. Several years ago this was provided to Corporate Associates members; however, management of some corporations do not feel this should be done. Goldhaber asked if nominations for the Industrial Applications of Physics prizes are held over from year to year. Schmitt replied that they are and are considered again.
Schmitt stated that some suggestions for the new Chairman of the Corporate Associates Advisory Committee have been given to Ramsey. He hopes they will quickly find a replacement for him so early planning can take place. Schawlow asked the procedure for appointing a successor; Koch replied that the Nominating Committee makes recommendations, then the Chairman of the Governing Board makes a selection. Schawlow suggested that the Executive Committee be authorized to accelerate the process. Koch replied that if this was desired, the decision on a new Chairman could be made by the end of the year.
The following motion was made by Schawlow, seconded by Goldhaber, and passed unanimously:
MOVED that the Governing Board authorize the Executive Committee to move on appointment of the Chairman of the Advisory Committee on Corporate Associates.
Ramsey and Koch and the Governing Board expressed their appreciation to Schmitt for his service as Chairman.
At this juncture of the meeting Koch stated that he felt the next three agenda items (5, 6, and 7) were particularly timely since the ad hoc Committee on Communication Among Scientists, which consists of Barschall (Chairman), Abrahams, Grant, and Lazarus, will be considering the matter of transition to electronic publishing. In this connection there is a need for a long-range publishing plan covering the next five years.
Koch introduced the three outside speakers, all of whose topics have a bearing on electronic publishing. Barschall is editor of Physical Review C; Melvin Day is the director of the National Technical Information Service, having previously been at NSF; and Scott Kirkpatrick is a physicist at the IBM Watson Research Center at Yorktown Heights and had previously given a talk at NAS on this topic.
5. Concern for Economics of Primary Journals and Research Libraries – H. Barschall
Barschall discussed the Study of Scientific Information Systems in the United Kingdom. Many of its conclusions are equally applicable to the situation in the U. S. He reviewed the situation in some U. S. libraries, particularly in his school (University of Wisconsin). In the Physics Department, the budget for periodicals was increased by almost a factor of four, from 1970 to 1980. However, with the increases in prices of journals, they had to cancel 15% of the journals previously subscribed to. The number of foreign journal cancellations was less due to the strength of the dollar. He showed comparisons between Physical Review C and the comparable Nuclear Physics A (a North-Holland journal), and comparisons among American, European, and British astronomical journals. He has brought these concerns before the Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences of the National Research Council; they formed a panel, with funding by the NAS, chaired by Carey (Executive Director of AAAS), to discuss whether the Council should become involved in publication problems. A report of this initial meeting was presented to the Assembly; some of the recommendations which are already being implemented were read to the group.
Boyce asked if the panel had considered what the Budget Director would think if the Office of the Budget knew that the U. S. Government paid page charges. Barschall said it was considered wise not to make an issue of page charges. AIP and APS decided not to raise page charges, partly because of the hazard of relying too heavily on them. He pointed out that page charges have, in fact, increased substantially recently; institutions with federal contracts are now collecting overhead on page charges. Burton commented that the more one brings page charges to the attention of the Federal Government, the more risk one takes.
Quinn expressed surprise at the conclusions on the comparisons between Physical Review C and Nuclear Physics A. Page charges are roughly the same dollar amount as non-member subscription income. In order to publish the same number of pages without page charges, the subscription price would have to be doubled. Therefore, if page charges are abolished, subscription prices have to be raised, but the technical community still comes out ahead.
Burton asked if copies of the NRC report are available; Barschall replied that he had just picked up a copy of the draft report of the panel, but it has not yet been approved. Ramsey said he would like to make this report available to members of the Governing Board
Barschall commented that the United Kingdom study recommends instituting page charges, which they have not had until now. It is interesting that AIP would now consider eliminating page charges.
Koch commented that this makes us realize the extent of the problem and stimulates thinking about it.
6. Threat of Foreign Competition – M. Day
Concerning the question of page charges, Day stated that in federal budget documents, one finds no mention of page charges. It is very important that NAS do something in this area, but it must be done carefully.
In the fields of scientific information, the U. S. has been the unquestioned leader in all areas. Much of the success has been due to the efforts of professional societies. Our information and technology systems are among the best in the world. It is to be noted that we have no national plan nor any government action, which may be good. This is not the case in most other countries. Many other governments have sponsored major studies to establish national systems, partly because there is concern about being too dependent on the U. S. There is presently a great influx of foreign capital into the U. S.; many foreign companies are buying U. S. companies.
Day discussed the medical abstracting service owned by a Dutch firm, Elsevier Science Publications. They have hired a U. S. law firm and registered as a lobbying organization, and have been successful in proving charges that the National Library of Medicine has been monopolizing this area. These developments cannot help but have an impact on AIP and its publications.
He discussed a consortium called Adonis, made up of Springer-Verlag, Elsevier Science Publications, Blackwell and Pergamon in the U.K., and John Wiley of the U. S. Adonis plans to sell journal articles by putting on videodisc all articles in their publications and to charge about $1.00 to $4.00. This is less than AIP charges for its single articles. They intend to be primary, secondary, and tertiary publishers. Professional societies should recognize this, but also realize that competition is a good thing and can aid progress. These overseas companies are moving into the information community of the U. S. and AIP must be aware of it.
The National Technical Information Service with which he is affiliated is a unique organization of the Federal Government; it is completely self-supporting. It serves as a clearing house for reports of federal R&D programs. This year it has received 90,000 reports; the average report is 150 pages long. NTIS then organizes this material and makes it available to the scientific and industrial communities.
Until five years ago, there was little concern regarding the outflow of technology to other countries. There is now concern over losing our markets, and we are trying to acquire foreign technology. About 12% of the input into our system comes from other countries. The matter is complicated by a difference in policy. Our government does not copyright materials whereas most other federal governments do. Other governments are now starting to modify their policies; German companies are now beginning to send information. Day noted that we are not trying to acquire proprietary information. We are making progress with the U. K. and Europe, but none with Japan. An organization called the Japan Institute for Invention and Innovation, financially supported by the National Diet, encourages innovation through competitions from grammar school up. The results of this approach can be seen in their advanced technology.
In a question period following Day's address, Schawlow asked how the European consortium can provide articles at such a low price. Day answered that they are concerned about loss of revenue from photocopying and intend to compete with organizations offering photocopy service. They plan to set up the operation in cooperation with the British Lending Library Division, which is the largest copying service in the world. They will operate in the U. S. within four months of establishing their European operations. Koch added that they would put 50,000 pages on each optical disc and would have a total of about 60 optical discs. The plan is to communicate with laser printers in the U. S. located within a 50-mile radius of the 20 field stations of the Satellite Business Systems. Schawlow asked how the billing costs would be handled. Day answered that they may use deposit accounts such as NTIS does.
7. Potential of New Technologies – S. Kirkpatrick
Kirkpatrick discussed new modes of scientific communication, including: 1) teleconferencing; 2) computer networks (examples: ARPANET, UNET); 3) on-line retrieval of abstracts; 4) on-line access to literature. He suggested ways in which AIP might participate in these or experiment and contribute to their development.
AIP functions which might be suitable for networking include manuscript submission, correspondence with referees, author inquiries, and extended or trial-basis SPIN services. He noted that the New York Times can provide on-line service with their terminals for any article that has been published (without photos).
Under Capture of Coded Documents, he discussed a number of concerns. Regarding software, the text-handling languages for technical materials are at present immature; he commented on the ones available.
In conclusion, he stated that as far as today is concerned, the networks exist. There is an important informal link which AIP could use for author communication. The software for abstracting and indexing is limited at present. Its usefulness could be enhanced by adding access to pre-publication literature. One thing to be considered is publication of articles on demand.
Questions were invited. DeMaria asked about the possibility of having conferences simultaneously on the East and West Coasts and teleconferencing the two. Kirkpatrick replied that one disadvantage is that interaction between participants is lacking.
Marks explained the use of ATEX and UNIX and the production of our SPIN tapes. Schawlow suggested that AIP make the SPIN tapes user-readable. He had his librarian make a search for material for him. Kirkpatrick commented that search programs are more desirable if readers can use them themselves, but this is not now commercially convenient.
(The meeting recessed at 9:40 p.m. It resumed at 8:00 a.m., 17 October, called to order by Chairman Ramsey.)
8. IRS Position on Unrelated Business Income
Gilbert noted that the ruling from IRS was received the previous week, and then introduced Lehrfeld, AIP's tax attorney in Washington. Lehrfeld distributed a handout consisting of four parts: 1) Memorandum re Counsel/Accountant Computation of Possible Unrelated Business Income Tax Deficiency, 1974 to 1980, dated October 17, 1981; 2) IRS National Office Technical Advice Memorandum based on conference of June 10, 1980; 3) IRS National Office Memorandum in Response to an Adverse Determination; and 4) CFR Section 501(c)(3) which applies to AIP. He reviewed the activities on which AIP was challenged by the IRS. The liabilities of the Institute from 1974 on could have approximated $600,000; with the recent ruling, the assessments are far less. He felt it highly unlikely that the IRS will be able to do substantial damage to AIP in the future if the activities continue the same as at present. The required adjustment related to the way advertising income is computed for journals that also have page charge income.
In Lehrfeld's judgment, AIP came out very well. He noted that it is in AIP's interest, due to the change (in February 1982) in the IRS interest rate from 12% to 20%, to file amended tax returns, pay what we have computed to be owed, then wait for them to get back to us.
Gilbert then reported on the second tax matter, with the NYC Tax Commission; the ruling was received last week. Unfortunately, the decision is adverse. There was a hearing on 19 May 1981. AIP had paid New York City real estate tax for fiscal 1980-81 ($106,000 or $2.83 @ square foot) under protest; we are now paying for 1981-82 under protest ($116,000 or $3.10 @ square foot). The only course to pursue now is in the courts; this must be started before the end of January 1982. It should begin with an "Article 78" proceeding in the Trial Court. Details on this have not yet been discussed with the attorney. It is obvious that the real estate tax will gradually escalate.
Schawlow wondered if this could be a precedent for the Woodbury property, but Gilbert said not. The opinion of the AIP attorney is that the reason for the Manhattan problem is due to New York City's dire financial situation. Clark asked what the legal fees would be to handle this; there is no answer to this until a meeting has been held with the lawyers.
Beyer commented that one additional alternative would be to sell the building and move out of New York City. Schawlow said that the threat of moving out of the city is one which is made all the time, but he hopes it is a threat the Institute will not have to carry out.
9. Program Reviews Based on Function Planning
Planning Responses to Publishing Concerns
Koch introduced the discussion of a proposed long-range plan for electronic publishing, the Accounting System Improvement Plan and the Computer System Modernization Plan, copies of which had been distributed to the Board as Appendices C and D with the agenda. He referred to the previous evening's presentations by Barschall, Day, and Kirkpatrick, who addressed the external influences on AIP's publishing program, namely, 1) new technology, 2) foreign and domestic competition, and 3) national economy.
The morning's presentations by Gilbert, Dolowich, and several Committee Chairmen address the internal influences, namely, AIP's fiscal recordkeeping capabilities. An understanding of the external as well as the internal influences is essential as AIP undertakes in 1982 a planning effort on electronic publishing.
Koch showed a series of slides which illustrated AIP's approach to planning on any subject. Three stages are needed: 1) statement of problem, job, or function; 2) request for proposals or specifications of job to be done; and 3) implementation. These stages can be undertaken in a systematic way, which will be communicated to the Board and then to the Societies. Koch noted that the three-stage approach has been taken most literally in the Computer System Modernization Plan.
Koch concluded this introduction by stating the general plans of AIP management to undertake long-range planning in 1982 for electronic publishing. The initiation of such a plan would have to be acceptable to the Board, he noted.
Report of Task Group on Timely Financial Statements
Gilbert reported on the Task Group formed last July to facilitate this goal; Kuczmarski, who was an audit manager at Touche Ross, has been functioning as liaison with Touche Ross, Dolowich was hired as Controller in June 1981. The aim of these groups was to issue by 30 September a variance statement as of 30 June. They also set the goal of having year-end Society variance statements sent to the Societies by 31 March. The initial timetable was to have the interim audit started by Touche Ross at the end of November, and have the audit completed by the end of April. The first six months 1981 variance statements were sent on schedule.
Gilbert distributed copies of the Institute balance sheet as of June 30, 1981 (attached as Exhibit A), as prepared by Kuczmarski and Gilbert, and noted that this is a certifiable statement. He noted that the services of Kuczmarski are very valuable as there is heavy personnel turnover in big accounting/auditing firms such as Touche Ross. He reviewed the items. The Institute's cash flow was in a favorable position at the end of June; total assets were $13.4 million and current liabilities, $2.6 million. The listing of property, plant, and equipment includes the Institute's equity of $2.4 million.
In response to Clark's question concerning Restricted Funds, Gilbert explained that these are special purpose funds, such as the various endowment funds for the Center for History of Physics, and are not available for open spending.
In reviewing the entries under Revenue, Gilbert noted, concerning investment income, a conservative figure of $200,000 was projected, but the realized figure was $301,803.
The balance sheet statement has not yet been related to the annual budget, but the latter has a breakeven figure. The figures in June are usually high, as there are more expenses in the second half of the year. He noted that this statement reflects improvements in the accounting system and progress in becoming current.
Pao stated that this shows an important improvement, and is the first time that a statement has been available which is clear.
Accounting System Improvement Plan
Ramsey introduced Bernard Dolowich, who was hired as Controller in June.
Dolowich introduced copies of the condensed version of the Accounting System Improvement Plan, designed for easy reference. He stated that upon his arrival at AIP, he reviewed the Touche Ross report which expedited his introduction to AIP. However, it was written with a broad brush, so he needed to interview key people and make up flow charts; he noted that though it is easy to list problems it is more difficult to solve them. It was thought previously that the problem was one of hardware, but he found rather that it was primarily a systems problem. The broad goals set to achieve timely and accurate financial statements were as follows: 1) to design and implement a budgeting and accounting process capable of meeting AIP's needs, 2) to restructure the accounting organization to identify realistic manpower requirements for current and future needs, 3) to document new procedures to ensure their effectiveness, and 4) to specify the software and hardware criteria required to implement a computer system for the accounting function. Some problems noted were that the general ledger had been printed selectively with many manual systems needed, that the ledger had been closed only once a year, and that prorations and allocations had been done manually. The Univac programs are now in outmoded languages.
The general ledger, a stack of paper printouts six to eight inches high, will be closed on a monthly basis; this will be achieved gradually. It is planned to print it in a different way. It will be printed with supplements but it will also be possible to print it in its entirety. The internal audit will reduce the fees to Touche Ross. Monthly budget comparisons will be helpful to department heads. The ledger will be complete, not selective.
Mundane tasks now being done manually will be computerized where feasible. With the heavy volume transactions of the accounting department, some problems are: 1) inability of NCR bookkeeping machines to age accounts receivable, 2) manual analysis, and 3) lax collection procedures. A collection program was tested and found to be successful, so the advertising accounts receivable were converted to the new program. In the Pubs and Reprints area, which has a much greater volume than advertising, the current billing is now being converted.
The Touche Ross report was highly critical of AIP collection procedures. AIP presently uses both ledger cards and loose invoice cards. We have now contracted with MIC (a telephone communication carrier) so that long distance phone contacts can be made less expensively; these are more effective for collections than followup letters. A new employee is now handling collection efforts only.
In accounts payable, two problems noted were duplication of effort and the fact that purchase orders and requisitions did not have the account numbers on them. This is being worked on. Accounting is currently paying two times weekly; they will attempt to pay once a week.
The travel expense voucher needs to be revised; it is too highly condensed and hence too difficult to audit.
In the payroll area, one problem is manual allocations. They are also converting to the ADP system for personnel records, for allocations, and for FICA.
In fixed assets, problems are: 1) depreciation is done manually, 2) the computer program needs revision, and 3) an error in the subsidiary ledger affected the general ledger.
Improvements in cash flow have been noted with the new banking relationship with the Woodbury bank and with use of the locked box concept.
In the area of data processing, he is reviewing available software. Prorations are being reviewed; job orders are being centralized. Small job orders are being handled more expeditiously.
Highlights for implementation of the outlined tasks involve the Controller's devoting time to accounting and data processing, retraining of personnel, and documenting the systems as they are developed. It is hoped to provide for backup where possible.
The time frames being developed are: 1) near term (day-to-day tasks), which should be implemented by December 1981; 2) midterm, somewhat longer, which refers to major items such as quoted prices and prorations; and 3) long-range (the total complex accounting package).
Pao stated that as Controller, it is Dolowich's responsibility to see that AIP is cost-effective, and to make sure that the information is conveyed to the Societies so that they know it is cost-effective. With the development of electronic publishing, it will require new efforts to bring this about. AIP is now at a critical point. Before the Societies will be willing to pour in new resources, they need to know the Institute is cost-effective.
Dolowich said that bringing the accounting procedures into line contributes to these objectives.
Reports of Fiscal Committees
Audit Committee – Weaver
Weaver gave a report of the Committee meeting of 1 October. The Committee spent the day with Touche Ross and AIP personnel and went over all matters relative to the audit. They also had a report from Dolowich on accounting improvements.
They went over a management letter and were pleased that Touche Ross recommendations had been implemented. Their two recommendations to the Governing Board, presented as motions by Weaver, were:
1) MOVED that the Governing Board pass a resolution that the auditor's report be accepted as submitted by Touche Ross.
This was seconded by Strassenburg and carried unanimously.
2) MOVED that Touche Ross be appointed as auditors for AIP for 1981.
There was no need for a second, it being a recommendation from the Committee. The motion was carried unanimously.
Weaver mentioned several things which he said the Committee wanted to note: 1) Audit Form: they found it very good, and easy to use. 1979 and 1980 figures were given for comparison, which proved very useful. 2) Any suggestions for changes should be communicated to Gilbert. 3) They were happy to hear of the changes now in progress and the swift implementation of these changes. 4) They considered the improvements first rate.
They feel that someone should continue to monitor the progress in accounting. The Executive Committee should be given a report at each meeting of the progress being made. Ramsey said that this will be done.
The Audit Committee discussed the question of whether AIP should change to a fiscal year; however, it was concluded that there is no need to make this change.
Regarding the new computer, Weaver noted that the original plan was to have separate computers for accounting and for subscription fulfillment. It now appears that there may be a single computer which can fulfill both needs. However, it is important that the accounting needs not be overlooked while attending to complicated procedures needed for subscription fulfillment.
Ramsey thanked Weaver for his report, commenting that it was more cheerful than in the past.
Committee on Fiscal Policy – Clark, Chairman
Clark distributed copies of the report of the Fiscal Policy Committee meeting of 30 September 1981, which gives their observations and recommendations, and suggested that the Governing Board refer to this (copy attached to official minutes). He commented on the progress which will lead to eliminating the use of quoted prices in billing Societies for out-of-house expenses. They will be billed on actual expenses rather than quoted prices, making the payments more accurate. The Committee is, however, concerned that now that quoted prices will not be used as much, their value may not be appreciated. They recommend that annual quoted prices still be prepared carefully and presented for use in the preparation of the Society annual budgets.
He commented on the plan in point 5 of the report for payment of short-term interest to Societies on dues and subscription collections, which has already been approved by the Executive Committee.
Ad Hoc Committee on Computer Needs – Quinn, Chairman
Preliminaries to Computer System Improvement Plan
Auliano made the presentation on plans for a new computer, referring to Appendix D (Computer System Modernization Plan) of the Function Planning booklets. He noted that in the effort to develop a viable plan for new computer hardware, AIP had engaged Business Controls Corp. to recommend plans; however, last spring the Governing Board did not like this because of a lack of emphasis on the accounting area and the consideration of only one computer. Since that time a Controller has been brought in, who has reviewed the systems and who considers it is not practical to implement a computer plan until all the systems are in place.
A Task Group was named to formulate requirements of the Subscription Fulfillment division, and preliminary specifications were prepared. Function Planning, Appendix A, Section 3d describes the efforts of this Task Group and outlines a strategy for the selection of a computer. Auliano assured the Board that any computer purchased will be compatible with accounting needs.
He went through the Computer Operations Modernization Plan, step by step. He pointed out that when the Univac was installed in 1976, computer prices were much higher than now. Our present software is outmoded and it hinders AIP's ability to function as efficiently as desired. One aim is to reduce the massive computer printouts through use of current technology, and to allow the systems to be interactive and be written in COBOL only. The overall parameters of a new subscription fulfillment system are described as a turnkey system which will allow subscription fulfillment to be modernized and at the same time allow it to incorporate the accounting function. It is to be on-line, interactive, and user friendly. The Societies will have access to the data via terminals and will have input. The billing and payment processing will provide for great flexibility, including multiple addresses, allowing for associating a particular mailing with a particular address. All outputs are to be directed to batchcue and the computer will assign priorities. A word processing facility will produce letters to new members and will format complaint replies. It will have a security system via a system of passwords. Single-copy sales will be automated. The expanded data elements will allow assigned areas for each Society for its use alone.
Burton questioned the matter of addresses; Boyce said that this is different than previously was understood. Duke commented that this is a subject which the Committee should take up.
Pao asked about aging of accounts. Gilbert answered that this is handled by gracing in subscription fulfillment.
Page 8 of the Plan shows a diagram of the action plan to award the contract; Auliano reviewed the plan. He noted that the major concern of the Societies is that they be given the facility to have access to the computer and ability to interact with it on their equipment and that this has been provided for. After subscription fulfillment is set, the same procedure will be done for accounting, to be done either on the same or a different computer, as seems best when the time comes. The aim is to get the proposal to the vendors before 1 December 1982, but preferably by early November. The replies from the vendors will probably take four to six weeks. Their techniques and costs will be evaluated by the AIP staff, after which the task group will make recommendations to AIP management, with ranking of the responses. This evaluation will then go to the Ad Hoc Committee on Computer Needs, then to the Executive Committee or Governing Board.
While the vendor is designing the system, the efforts in accounting are continuing; these will be formalized. They will see what software is available. Many packages are now available for accounting, but none for the AIP type of subscription fulfillment.
Quinn distributed the report of the Committee, which met on 6 October 1981 (copy attached to official minutes). He noted that the charge to the Committee had changed since its formation. The fiscal reporting to the Societies is a system problem, not a computer one. The Committee felt that the subscription fulfillment equipment will be sufficient to accommodate accounting. He reviewed the recommendations of the Committee, noting the following concerning the recommendations: 1) and 2) address the accounting problem; 3) provides a management tool to show the progress of implementation: the Committee wants the implementation schedule reported on and brought up to date at each Executive Committee meeting; 4) points up the necessary coupling between subscription fulfillment and accounting; 5) asks the AIP staff to prepare for the accounting system the equivalent of the present proposal, with information on equipment, systems, and manpower requested; 6) calls for job accounting to charge the Societies for time or equipment; 8) is the charge to the Ad Hoc Committee; 9) notes that where there are large investments in capital equipment there is a dangerous situation for AIP, as the Societies are committed for only a year-to-year basis; 10) includes the Controller of AIP in negotiations for the subscription fulfillment system; and 11) notes to AIP staff that the purpose of this equipment is to provide more accurate and timely service at reduced cost.
The following motion was made by Quinn, seconded by Duke, and carried unanimously.
MOVED that the Governing Board approve the recommendations contained in the report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Computer Needs.
Koch stated that there is the matter of authorizing the implementation of this plan, since it would need final approval before the next Governing Board meeting in March in order to adhere to the schedule.
The following motion was made by Duke, seconded by Bauman, and carried unanimously.
MOVED that the Governing Board give the Executive Committee authorization of funds up to $700,000 in hardware and software for a computer system pursuant to the conditions outlined.
Ramsey congratulated the staff for presenting the material in such a clear manner.
10. Discussion of Corporate Associates Talk by T. H. Moss: "Budget Prospects for Science in 1982"
Morse led off with a brief report on the activities of the Committee on Public Policy. He enumerated the following areas being treated by subcommittees: 1) copyright and information thereon, 2) getting science information to the public, and 3) communication with the government (Boyce is chairman of this subcommittee).
Morse referred to the previous day's subcommittee discussion on the matter of science education; a subcommittee is being formed to deal with that topic.
Coleman suggested that it is important to have contact with local school boards. He suggests trying to use industrial people with whom we are in contact to try to assist in this.
Morse asked if members of the Governing Board are interested enough to sit in on the forthcoming meeting of the Committee at AIP on 23 November. Strassenburg, Kelly, Mueller, and Clark expressed interest. Morse said he would also like to have members from industry.
Koch brought up the matter of seminars; CPP has been useful in promoting them in the past. He mentioned the Science Writers' Seminar at IBM on 30 October, for which there has been enthusiastic response.
Clark mentioned a proposal made in the Corporate Associates meeting of going into the communities to approach a few of the more prosperous industries concerning funding. Some ideas suggested were supporting a chair for a physics or science teacher or supplementing teachers' salaries, which would help morale. Morse stated that additional training is needed for science teachers, such as was done a few years ago by NSF, and industry could be helpful in this area.
Morse noted there is a subcommittee dealing with contacts with the Washington scene. Clark felt that there is a need for a subcommittee concentrating on coordinating efforts for obtaining support from industry for universities and colleges. Morse said that the Board should decide how they want to approach this question.
Koch mentioned several things which AIP could do to help, including making available a list of names and addresses of Congressmen prepared by the Public Information Division; he will see that it is distributed. Some of the editorials in PT have been helpful in the science education area, partly because this periodical goes to every member of Congress with a letter of transmittal from Koch.
Ramsey said that if anyone knows someone in his state who is on a committee in Congress, he should be contacted.
Koch reported on what other societies are doing in this regard. The ACS has hired Mike McCormack, a former Congressman from Washington, on a halftime basis. He, with Ray Mariella, will visit every member of Congress and provide them with data. The AAES has hired Bob Frosch (former director of NASA) as their Executive Director and is making contacts to make sure its viewpoints are known to Congress.
Koch mentioned that Clogston (of Bell Labs) commented in the Corporate Associates Committee meeting that the time is right for developing new models, and AIP can coordinate these activities. Ramsey said that AIP should take steps to get information to various societies and to try to encourage people to see their own Congressmen. Further considerations will be given to industrial-university relations. A decision is needed as to whether a subcommittee of CPP or a separate committee should be formed. Koch suggested that another possibility would be a subcommittee of the Corporate Associates, and Morse suggested making it a joint committee.
Boyce again called for people who are active in these efforts to send information on what they are doing to Slack for distribution.
11. Reports of Other Advisory Committees
Committee on Publishing Policy – Quinn
Letters re Copying Fees
Quinn reported that the Committee on Publishing Policy met on 20 May. Staff recommendations on journal price increases were reviewed and forwarded to the Committee with a recommendation that they be approved. He listed other recommendations as follows: 1) invoices should state that subscriptions are for members' personal use only; 2) 1982 CPR prices should be increased to $10.00 per article of 20 pages or less, plus $0.20 per page for articles of over 20 pages; 3) the CCC copying fees should be reduced to zero; 4) CCC copying fees for AIP translation journals should be set at 10% of the 1982 back number price. All of these recommendations were adopted by the Governing Board except for 3).
Ramsey commented that the Executive Committee felt strongly about this. The income from copying fees is still very small. An exchange of letters between Lazarus and others was useful in airing views. A handout was distributed which included a letter from Lazarus to Quinn dated 2 October, asking Quinn to present his views and relevant material on this matter to the Governing Board, a memo from Walt to Goodwin dated 31 July concerning payment from CCC, and a letter from Lazarus to Duke of 3 September explaining his position (copy attached to official minutes).
Schawlow suggested that, since Lazarus was not present at the meeting to make the motion which he wished to, the motion be made and then tabled until the next meeting.
Duke commented that there was not sufficient data on this issue for an adequate background. He referred to the serious situation with the drop in subscriptions, and felt that it was not in the best interest of the Board to discuss copying fees by themselves but rather to discuss them in the context of the broader picture of the journals. Strasberg and Boyce expressed concurrence.
The following motion was made by Schawlow and seconded by Boyce.
MOVED that Copyright Clearance Center fees be reduced to zero.
Following the discussion, the following motion was made by Strasberg, seconded by Bjarngard, and carried unanimously.
MOVED that the motion made by Schawlow that the Copyright Clearance Center fees be reduced to zero be tabled.
Ramsey suggested that further information be made available and that the matter be taken up when Lazarus is present.
Committee on Manpower – Clark
Clark reported that the Subject Committee met on 2 October 1981. He reviewed the high points from his draft of the recommendations:
- There is a strong feeling that the manpower data bases are very valuable to the community; they feel that the information needs more dissemination. He noted a table on salaries, median salaries, etc. (Koch said that this is being included in the monthly mailing and he felt that the "We Hear That" section in PT would be a good place to note some of these facts.);
- They noted that this form of providing information is very valuable, but the way it is presently being done (out-of-house) is time-consuming and expensive. They would like the Manpower Division to look into computer graphics, which may be of benefit, not only to Manpower but to other groups within the Institute.
- The National Bureau of Statistics has tapes on scientific professionals which contain valuable information; this should be looked into; and
- The presentation on the Placement Service explained the value of implementing a fee schedule; at the present time it is abused and overburdened. There is concern that this be done in such a way so as not to make it a burden to students and people really in need of it. It was noted that the Placement Service is available to all Member Societies for meetings at Society expense.
Ramsey asked Slack to explain the fee schedule. Slack stated that it was designed not to be a barrier. In the announcement of the schedule, it is stated that in the first year after obtaining a degree, there is no fee. Many people are now on the list just to get the monthly summary. Fees for employers must be approached cautiously, but it was noted that many employers have been amazed in the past that there was no fee to them. The registration fee for them is negligible: $40.00 for industrial and academic employers.
Clark commented that there is a concern for a need for a physicist on the staff to work on manpower, such as Ray Sears had done. The consideration of the cost of such a person is necessary, and it should be someone who has contacts with industry. Koch said that building this into the budget could be discussed to see if the Institute can afford it.
Committee on Public Education and Information – R. P. Bauman
Bauman reported that this Committee had looked at the material which is being produced by the division: booklets, TV reports, etc. The budget for this is a little less than $1/2 million, 2/3 of which comes from the AIP budget. The TV segments cost $150,000, which has been supplied by outside grants. There is concern over how to continue that project when the funding stops and consideration is being given to going to sister societies to discuss a cooperative effort.
Advisory Committee on Physics Today – Kelly
Kelly noted that last year's report is in Function Planning, Appendix A. A draft report of the recent meeting was furnished to him by Beavis, since he could not attend the meeting. The Committee felt that the appearance and content were in general well-done and they commended the Editor and staff. Delays in issuance were noted, some of which were caused by computer malfunction; another reason cited was fairly heavy personnel turnover. Ways of remedying this were discussed. The average cost of $3.00 per subscription does not include the costs of advertising, paper, printing, binding, and mailing.
The Committee discussed having more special issues; there are currently two per year, and they recommend three or four. They recommend producing articles on fields outside physics which would be of interest to physicists, i.e. genetic engineering from the physicist's point of view. They also felt the staff could take more of the recommendations of the Advisory Committee. They felt the business of soliciting advertisements was not being done as aggressively as possible. They feel the magazine is potentially a very influential magazine and would like to move to make it more so. One suggestion was to expand the State and Society section, making it more current, but the problem is lead time. They suggested dealing more with controversial issues, albeit in a rational way.
Ramsey noted the free publicity in the DC airport: an ad for the Boston Globe has PT in it. Strasberg noted a subway construction graffiti item: Physics Is Great.
12. Development of Operational Plans
This was not discussed.
13. Relations of Member Societies with AIP on 50th Anniversary
This was not discussed.
14. Continuing Concerns
- Liabilities of Directors
This was not discussed.
15. Other Business
There was no other business.
The meeting was adjourned at 12:30 p.m., with those who wished having the scheduled lunch after the adjournment.