AIP History Center Newsletter
Volume XXXVI , No. 2, Fall 2004


Documentation Preserved
Compiled by Katherine A. Hayes

All the information here is entered in our online International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics and Allied Sciences. This online Web version is the full, complete version. To see the shortened version that appeared in our print Newsletter, see the PDF.

The Natural History Museum. Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, England, UK (Contact: Museum Archivist)

Papers of René Gallant. Author of The Bombarded Earth (1964), in which he proposed the concept of meteorite impact as an explanation for mass extinctions in the earth's history. The book, which included supporting mathematical data and photographic evidence, was only published in the UK, thus he is nearly unknown elsewhere. A veteran of the Belgian Air Force in World War II, his war experiences gave him insight into the effect explosions could have on the earth's surfaces. He gathered evidence for catastrophic events caused by meteorite impact, and corresponded with the foremost experts of the time, including H. Ninniger of the American Meteorite Institute; Robert Dietz, geologist and oceanographer; Theodor Monod in Paris; and astronomer Ernst Julius Opik. Materials relate to the development of Gallant's ideas, bringing together the relationships between astronomy, mathematics, geology, biology and archaeology. Includes primary biographical material, scientific correspondence, research material, photographs, manuscripts of lectures and publications, reviews and lecture notes; also includes recent files of biographical research by Hugh S. Torrens on Gallant. Size: 4.6 cu. ft. (50 paper files, 580 photographic slides). Contact repository for further information on access.

Académie des Sciences. Archives et Patrimoine historique. 23 quai de Conti, 75006 Paris, France (Contact: Florence Greff)

Papers of Jean Perrin, 1870-1942. Physical chemist. Student of Marcel Brillouin; chair in physical chemistry at Sorbonne for 30 years. Author of Les Atomes (1913). Nobel prize in physics, 1926; elected to the Académie des Sciences, 1923. Collection includes biographical materials, publications, speeches and talks, Nobel prize materials, correspondence, notebooks, scientific manuscripts, and materials relating to the establishment of the Palais de la découverte in Paris. Collection dates: 1887-1942. Size: 5 cartons.

Russian Academy of Sciences. Archive. ul. Novocheremushkinskaia, 34, Moscow 117218, Russia (Contact: Archivist)

Papers of B. M. Vul. Physicist (1903-1985); semiconductors and dielectrics; member of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1972, and worked in the Physical Institute there. Includes scientific articles, research reports, reviews, personalia, documents on activities in the Pugwash movement. Size: 3.5 lin. meters. Collection is unprocessed.

Papers of Evgenii Ivanovich Zababakhin. Physicist (1917-1984); physics of explosions and nuclear weapons; member of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1968. Worked in nuclear weapons laboratories. Includes articles, manuscripts, research notebooks, research reports, drafts, correspondence, photographs, autobiography, reviews. Size: 2.8 lin. meters.

Papers of Evgenii Konstantinovich Zavoiskii, 1907-1976. Physicist; physics of microwave radiation, discoverer of electron paramagnetic resonance (1944). Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences since 1964. Worked in Kazan University and in the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. Includes research reports, recollections by colleagues, personalia, photographs. Size: 2.1 lin. meters. Collection is unprocessed.

Dwight D. Eisenhower Library. Abilene, KS 67410, USA (Contact: James W. Leyerzapf)

"Twenty-four minutes to checkmate" by Vincent T. Ford. Served on the staff of the Department of the Air Force, Office of the Special Assistant for Research and Development during the Truman and Eisenhower Administrations. Vincent T. Ford's manuscript contains an opening chapter which describes the history of missile development in the U.S. from 1918 to the 1950's. It also devotes a few early chapters to the period 1947 to 1953, when an unofficial, informal group, which he labels the "kitchen cabinet", in Air Force Research and Development were working to promote ICBM development. Ford profiles these individuals and describes their efforts. The bulk of the manuscript covers the period from 1953 to 1957, and it illustrates the various individuals, committees, corporations, and agencies who worked to establish a crash program for ICBM's. Mr. Ford was working for Air Force Research and Development during this period, and he offers many personal insights into the different personalities involved in missile development and the influence they had on it. Some of the key personalities who are described by Ford include Theodore Von Karman, Trevor Gardner, James Killian, Donald Quarles, John Von Neumann, Charles C. Lauritsen, George Kistiakowsky, Jerome B. Wiesner, Edward Teller, Hyde Gillette, David Z. Beckler, and Charles E. Wilson. Ford devotes considerable text to the Von Neumann Nuclear Weapons Committee, including details on its recruiting of members, meetings, reports, and recommendations. He also comments on the efforts of other government entities which played a role in ICBM development. These include the Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development (AGARD), the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, the Office of Research and Development, Air Force, the President's Science Advisory Committee, and the Gardner Missiles Evaluation Committee. The efforts by Air Force R & D personnel and their allies to establish an accelerated Atlas project are described in detail. He also comments on the Gillette procedures for speeding up missile research and development. Collection dates: 1953-1957. Size: 1,260 pages. The entire manuscript is open to researchers, with the exception of a brief phrase on one page withheld for national security reasons.

Papers of Lauris Norstad, 1907-1988. General, United States Air Force; Supreme Allied Commander in Europe, 1956- 1963. The Papers of Lauris Norstad, which are organized into thirteen series, consist of approximately 93,000 pages. Essentially the papers cover General Norstad's public career from 1942 until 1974. His many activities and responsibilities as an air force officer are indicated by the diverse topics covered in this collection. The Organizations and Associations and Personal Name Series (spanning the years 1956-1962) are comprised largely of routine correspondence. They also include references to research and development records for such groups as the Air Force Association and NATO, and individuals such as Robert Oppenheimer and von Karman. Collection dates: 1930-1987. Size: 62 linear feet (147 boxes). Almost 17,000 pages in the Norstad Papers remain security classified and unavailable for research as of November 1988. These fall entirely within the SACEUR and Pre-SACEUR periods, 1951-1962.

Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania. Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center. Library and Archives. 1212 Smallman St., Pittsburgh, PA 15222, USA (Contact: Thomas E. White)

Records of the Aluminum Company of America. Includes correspondence, advertisements, annual reports, publications, charts, ledgers, memoranda, minutes and other materials. Primarily documents the early history of Alcoa and its facilities, and the products manufactured by the company between 1890 and 1960. Series II, Biographies, includes biographies on aluminum inventors, including Hans Oersted. Series XIV, Research and Development, covers the years 1888-1984 (bulk 1904-1935) in three boxes, arranged alphabetically by folder title. Contains blueprints, clippings, correspondence, memoranda and reports. Of interest is documentation on the early experimentation and history of alumina, bauxite and smelting pots; experimental data memoranda which date from1897 to 1951 containing information on experiments with smelting pots, carbons and rods at Massena Works, Niagara Works and Little Tennessee Works; history of early aluminum research by Dr. Francis Frary, Director of Research and Development for Alcoa, 1918-1952. Very little research information exists past the year 1940. Information on Charles Hall's experiments with aluminum can be found in Series IX, Management, which contains the original ledger from his experiments in Oberlin, Ohio. Collection dates: 1857-1992. Size: 95 linear feet (189 boxes).

North Carolina State University. Special Collections Research Center, NCSU Libraries. Box 7111, Raleigh, NC 27695-7111, USA (Contact: Todd Kosmerick)

Records of the Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University. Department of Nuclear Engineering. Correspondence, short course materials, minutes, contracts, budget information, and brochures relating to the United States Atomic Energy Commission, teaching of nuclear engineering, the nuclear reactor on campus (1950s), and the Nuclear Engineering program. Collection dates: 1950-1999. Size: 2.5 linear feet.

Papers of John S. Risley. Physics professor, North Carolina State University, 1976-present. Best known for pioneering work in physics education research, using technology to assist students learning physics. Collection includes personal correspondence, extensive conference and travel records, and class notes. Contents focused primarily on atomic collisions research; records of the International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC); VUV light standards; and the application of computer technology to physics education. Collection dates: 1961-2002. Size: 54 lin. ft. (34 boxes, 2 oversized folders).

Ohio State University. University Archives. 2700 Kenny Road, Columbus, OH 43210, USA (Contact: Raimund E. Goerler)

Oral history interview with John Daniel Kraus, 1910- . Professor of Electrical Engineering and Astronomy, Ohio State University for over 57 years; author of numerous books and articles; inventor of new types of antennae. Discusses his early invention of the helical antenna, which became widely used on satellites in space and the space station, and was later incorporated into an array of 96 antennae, forming one of the first radio telescopes. This was the forerunner of a much larger array built by Kraus called the "Big Ear", which was to discover some of the most distant objects in the universe known at that time; it was also a model for a similar array four times larger built in France that functions today. He comments on the use of the "Big Ear" as a teaching tool for studying radio emissions which were later found to correspond to extremely distant optical objects. The "Big Ear" also influenced the search for extra-terrestrial life and the work of other scientists, including Alan Hynek, Marion Pool, Sir Arthur Clarke. Also discussed are the discovery of cosmic rays and pulsars, Victor Hess, and the future of research to understand the universe. Interview date: 2002. Transcript: 18 pp. Interview conducted by Robert Wagner at the home of Dr. Kraus on August 20, 2002.

Smithsonian Institution. National Museum of American History (U.S.). Archives Center. MRC 601, 12th Street and Constitution Avenue, N. W., Washington, D. C. 20560, USA (Contact: John Fleckner)

Atomic test site slides taken by Ralph Earle at the Atomic Energy Testing Center, Yucca Flats, Nevada in October 1951, these are rare documentation of America's nuclear testing program. Collection dates: 1951. Size: 30 slides (lantern size and 35mm).

Oral history interview on videotape of H. W. Kroto, in which he discusses carbon structures (fullerenes) called "bucky balls" named after architect R. Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes; describes properties and mathematical principles represented by these structures, his background, and winning the Nobel Prize. Collection size: 0.5 cubic feet.

Smithsonian Institution Archives. A & I Building, Room 2135, MRC 414, 900 Jefferson Drive, SW, Washington, DC 20013, USA (Contact: Tammy Peters)

Records of Science Service. Established in 1920 through the efforts of E. W. Scripps in collaboration with the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and the National Research Council (NRC). In 1919 Scripps had established the American Society for the Dissemination of Science. Unknown to Scripps, the three major scientific organizations were trying to agree on a format and establish a popular science journal. In 1920 Scripps met with representatives of the AAAS, NAS, and NRC in an attempt to pool resources. Out of that meeting came Science Service, a news service designed to popularize science and to disseminate scientific knowledge. Edwin E. Slosson (1865-1929), chemist, journalist, and editor of the Independent, was appointed first Editor of Science Service in 1921, a post he held until his death. Watson Davis (1896-1967) was appointed Managing Editor of Science Service in 1921, and became Editor of the Science News Letter in 1922. After Slosson's death, Davis assumed the duties of Director, 1929-1966. These records constitute the morgue files for the Science Service, and as such contain past articles, press releases and other materials produced by the Science Service. In addition are supplemental photographs, news clippings, scientific papers and articles, obituaries and related topical information. Many of the topics document the area of physics. Collection size: 68.25 cubic feet.

Addition to the papers of Fred Lawrence Whipple, 1906- . Astronomer, received the B.A. from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1927, and the Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley in 1931. In 1932, he joined the staff of Harvard University as an Instructor of Astronomy. By 1950, Whipple had become Professor and Chairman of the Department of Astronomy at Harvard. Whipple was appointed Director of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) when it moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1955. Since his retirement in 1973, Whipple has continued his research as a Senior Scientist at SAO. During his tenure as Director, Whipple oversaw SAO research programs in stellar interiors, the upper atmosphere, meteorites, celestial mechanics, and geodesy studies. Major SAO projects under his direction included the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project, also known as the Prairie Network. In the late 1960s, Whipple selected Mount Hopkins, Arizona, as the site for a new SAO astronomical facility. Renamed the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in 1981, the facility houses the Multiple-Mirror Telescope (MMT), an innovative, low-cost telescope planned by Whipple and two colleagues. Whipple is internationally recognized for his research on the moon, meteors, and comets. He has conducted pioneering research in photographically measuring the speeds and decelerations of meteors, computing the orbits of comets and asteroids, and describing the structure of comets. He is the author of more than 150 scientific books and papers; has served as editor of several publications; and has been a member and officer in numerous professional organizations. In 1975, the minor planet no. 1940 was named WHIPPLE in recognition of his contributions to astronomy. Whipple died in 2004. The papers of Fred Lawrence Whipple document his astronomical research; his professional work in the field of astronomy; his career as Director of the SAO; and, to a lesser extent, his activities as a faculty member of Harvard University. They include a large file of correspondence with professional colleagues, amateur astronomers, SAO staff scientists, Smithsonian Institution officials, scientific societies and professional groups, government agencies, and Harvard University staff and officials which concerns Whipple's research interests, scientific publications, and editorial work; SAO research projects, particularly the Satellite Tracking Program, Project Celescope, the Radio Meteor Project, and the Meteorite Photography and Recovery Project; Whipple's work for professional organizations and government agencies and committees including the International Astronomical Union, the Committee on Space Research, the Committee on Space and Astronautics of the United States House of Representatives, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Science Foundation; SAO relations with the Smithsonian Institution; and his activities at Harvard University and the Harvard College Observatory. Also included are college papers, notes, and a copy of his Ph.D. dissertation; manuscripts of articles, lectures, radio talks, reviews, and notes from his research; research notes on comets; correspondence, notes, reports, minutes and related materials from Whipple's work with professional groups and committees; files documenting the development of the MMT at Mount Hopkins, Arizona; notes and correspondence documenting Whipple's work with the early space program and documenting observations of Sputnik; and a set of Whipple's publications. Collection dates: 1927-2004. Size: 9.8 linear meters. 19.72 cubic feet (2004 addition). Collection is unprocessed. Use of this record unit requires prior arrangement with the Archives staff.

State University of New York at Stony Brook. Frank Melville Jr. Memorial Library. Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA (Contact: Jason Torre)

Stony Brook history project by Sidney Gelber (1924- ), Distinguished Service Professor and Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus at Stony Brook University. Research material and interviews from Dr. Gelber's book: Politics and Public Higher Education in New York State: Stony Brook, A Case History. Physicists included among the interviews are: Oakes Ames, Chairman, Dept. of Physics and Assistant to President Toll during the 1970s, (Interview date: 7-28-87, tapes and transcript); Max Dresden, Professor of Physics and Executive Officer, Institute of Theoretical Physics, (Interview date: 8-24-87, tapes and transcript); Leonard Eisenbud, first Chairman of Physics Dept. (Interview date: 3-21-87, tapes and transcript); Arnold Feingold, Professor, Dept. of Physics and first Dean of the Graduate School, (Interview date: 11-28-88, tapes and transcript); David Fox, Professor of Physics and former Dean of the Graduate School, (Interview date: 12-1-88, tapes and transcript); C. N. Yang, Einstein Professor of Physics and Director of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Nobel Laureate, (Interview date: 12-15-87, tapes and transcript). Collection dates: 1947-1988. Size: 20 cu. ft.

Stony Brook oral history project by Karl D. Hartzell, Historian and Administrative officer at Stony Brook University. The information contained within the collection provides researchers with a comprehensive look at the development of the State University of New York at Stony Brook, begun at the behest of Provost J. R. Schubel in 1986. Among the physicists interviewed for the project were: Oakes Ames, Chairman, Dept. of Physics and Assistant to President Toll during the 1970s, (Interview date: 7-28-87); Max Dresden, Professor of Physics and Executive Officer, Institute of Theoretical Physics, (Interview date: 8-24-87); Leonard Eisenbud, first Chairman of Physics Dept. (Interview date: 3-21-87,); Arnold Feingold, Professor, Dept. of Physics and first Dean of the Graduate School, (Interview date: 11-28-88); David Fox, Professor of Physics and former Dean of the Graduate School, (Interview date: 12-1-88); John S. Toll, (Interview date: 1-24-87); C. N. Yang, Einstein Professor of Physics and Director of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, Nobel Laureate, (Interview date: 12-15-87). Collection dates: 1986-1989.

University of California, Berkeley. The Bancroft Library. Berkeley, CA 94620-6000, USA (Contact: David Farrell)

Papers of Donald A. Glaser (1926- ). Ph.D. in physics and mathematics from California Institute of Technology in 1950. Employed at the University of Michigan Department of Physics, and University of California Berkeley. Awarded Nobel Prize in 1960 for invention of the bubble chamber. Collection spans the entire scope of Glaser's life, research, and academic work. Includes extensive files and correspondence documenting his research grant proposals and reports; laboratory experiments and operations; patents; development, acquisition and use of instruments; course notes, lectures, and syllabi; consultancies; notes, records, and reports relating to the Cetus and Chiron corporations; and the Nobel Institute. Some of the earliest and most valuable material is contained in seven manuscript research notebooks compiled while Glaser conceived of and constructed the first bubble chamber. Collection dates: Ca. 1945-present. Size: 43.75 lin. ft. (35 cartons).

University of Minnesota. Charles Babbage Institute. Center for the History of Computing. University of Minnesota Libraries, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA (Contact: Elisabeth Kaplan )

Papers of Edsger Wybe Dijkstra. Dutch theoretical physicist and computer scientist. Born 1930; began programming in 1952 at the Mathematisch Centrum. Became a professor of mathematics at Eindhoven University of Technology in 1962, adding work as a research fellow with Burroughs Corporation in 1973. In 1984 left the Netherlands to accept the Schlumberger Centennial Chair in the Department of Computer Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin. Died in 2002. Includes articles and reports about all aspects of the programming field. Most were written while a research fellow for Burroughs in the Netherlands. Also contains an article entitled "The Humble Programmer." Includes a very small amount of administrative correspondence regarding the articles and reports Dijkstra wrote. Collection dates: 1971-1979. Size: 1 cu. ft. (1 box). Forms part of the Burroughs Corporation Records, CBI 90. This is Series 31. The collection is unrestricted.

University of Minnesota. University Archives. 10 Walter Library, 117 Pleasant St. S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA (Contact: Lois Hendrickson)

Papers of Willem Jacob Luyten, 1899-1994. Astronomer, astrophysicist; died in 1994. Includes correspondence, reports, publications, articles, manuscripts, grant proposals and documentation, autobiographies, and grievances. Subjects covered including white dwarf starts, proper motion studies, and low luminosity. Institutions include NASA, National Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation, Office of Naval Research. Correspondents include Harlow Shapley and Jesse Greenstein. Collection dates: 1920-1994. Size: 1 meter (7 boxes); 1 map case.

Papers of Joseph Valasek, 1896- . Physicist; faculty at University of Minnesota. Includes publications, class notes, lab notebook, course materials, lecture notes and examinations from W.F.G. Swann at University of Minnesota, and student papers. Collection size: 3 boxes.

University of Texas at Austin. Department of Computer Sciences. 1 University Station C0500, Austin, TX 78712-0233, USA (Contact: Ham Richards)

Manuscripts of Edsger Wybe Dijkstra. Dutch theoretical physicist and computer scientist. Born 1930; began programming in 1952 at the Mathematisch Centrum. Became a professor of mathematics at Eindhoven University of Technology in 1962, adding work as a research fellow with Burroughs Corporation in 1973. In 1984 left the Netherlands to accept the Schlumberger Centennial Chair in the Department of Computer Sciences at the University of Texas at Austin. Died in 2002. Includes Dijkstra's unpublished manuscripts in PDF bitmap format; a video filmed in autumn 2000; program for a symposium held in his honor in May 2000; quotes; remembrance by his department chair and the University of Texas Computer Sciences Department obituary. Internet resource accessible via the World Wide Web; composed of text (HTML, PDF), video (MPEG-1) and digital images. URL:

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AIP History CenterCenter for History of Physics
Phone: 301-209-3165
American Institute of Physics 2004 American Institute of Physics, One Physics Ellipse, College Park, MD 20740-3843. Email:
Phone: 301-209-3100; Fax: 301-209-0843