Documentation Preserved: Report from the International Catalog of Sources for History of Physics and Allied SciencesCompiled by Caroline Moseley
For progress in surveying for the International Catalog see the ICOS article. The following is our regular survey of archives and other repositories giving information on materials of interest to historians and others, not previously reported in this Newsletter. Many of these are new deposits not yet processed; others have restricted access. Please contact the repository for further information.
Australian Archives. New South Wales Office. Locked Bag 4 PO, Haymarket 2000 New South Wales, Australia.
Correspondence files of John G. Bolton, 1922-1993, in the records of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), Division of Radiophysics. Research Scientist with the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics (1946-1955); on the faculty of Caltech (developed radio astronomy program) (1955-1961); returned to CSIRO in 1961 as first Director of the Parkes Telescope, later the Australian National Radio Astronomy Observatory (1961-1970), continued to work at observatory until his retirement in 1981. Correspondence between Bolton and the Division of Radiophysics management including E. G. Bowen, and with significant astronomers. Series C4633 consignment 1. 1960-1981. 0.45 metres (2 boxes). Other records relating to Bolton are scattered through several consignments in Series C3830.
Access to CSIRO records less than 30 years old requires written authority. Contact: Records Manager, CSIRO Division of Telecommunications and Industrial Physics, PO Box 76, Epping, NSW 2121, Australia.
Reading University. Library. Department of Archives and Manuscripts. Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AE, England UK.
Papers of George William Series, 1920-1995. Physicist (optical spectroscopy). Professor of physics, Reading University (1968-1982). Collection includes some biographical and personal material including autobiographical notes and narratives written at various dates from 1963 to1994. Includes material on his appointment, career, and retirement at Reading University and his later honors. The surviving research papers represent Series´s own selection of topics of special interest to him. Series seems to have conducted a later revision of some of the material adding brief explanatory notes. There is a substantial record of Series´s acheivement as a lecturer to research groups and conferences (1959-1988). Publications and editorial papers form only a partial record of Series´s considerable editorial commitments but includes material on the founding of the European Journal of Physics, which he served as first editor. Visits and conference material are similarly scanty. The surviving correspondence dates largely but not exclusively from Series´s retirement years.
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften. Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. D-14195 Berlin-Dahlem, den Boltzmannstraße 14, Germany (contact: Marion Kazemi).
Papers of Jochen H. Block, 1929-1995. Physico-Chemist. At the Fritz Haber Institute of Max Planck Society in Berlin from 1966; Scientific Member from 1969. Worked on surface reactions of solids by field ion microscopy and other methods. Includes manuscripts; records of his department; "interface reactions" of symposia; correspondence with colleagues, institutions, and societies, among them IUPAC; his own reprints and a collection of spoonerisms he composed. Collection available for use in 2025. 1963-1995. 19 meters.
Papers of Isolde Hausser, 1889-1951. Radiation physicist, wife of Karl Wilhelm Hausser. At the Kaiser Wilhelm/Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Physics Department (1929-1951); Scientific Member from 1938. The deposit includes research material, patents, correspondence, research reports, and reprints of own publications. 1930-1954. 1.2 meters.
Papers of Karl Wilhelm Hausser, 1887-1933. Radiation physicist, husband of Isolde Hausser. Scientific Member of the Kaiser Wilhelm/Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg, Physics Department (1929-1933). The small deposit includes personal documents, research papers, manuscripts, and publications. 1887-1933.
Papers of Ernst Schiebod, 1894-1963. Professor in materials science at the University of Leipzig, Dresden and Magdeburg. External Scientific Member for the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Metals Research (1932-1948). Papers include personal documents and manuscripts and documents relating to his small private research company. 1919-1995. 0.75 meters.
University of Auckland. Dept. of Physics. Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand (contact: John Dudley).
Videotape Lectures on quantum electrodynamics by Richard Phillips Feynman, 1918-1988. Physicist (quantum electrodynamics). On the physics faculty at Cornell University (1945-1951) and California Institute of Technology from 1951; and Nobel Prize in Physics (1965). Videotapes of the lecture series on which Richard Feynman based his best selling book, QED-the Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Feynman had doubts about the accessibility to a general audience of lectures on quantum electrodynamics and chose New Zealand as a testing ground. 1979.
Archiwum Akt Nowych, Hankiewicza 1, Warsaw 02-103, Poland.
Personal files from Ministerstwo Wyznan Religijnych i Oswiecenia Publicznego (Ministry of Education). The collection includes biographical materials, lists of publications, and reports relating to Wladyslaw Nathanson, Tadeusz Banachiewicz, Czeslaw Bialobrzeski [report from the meeting of Russian physicists (1928) and a report from a scientific voyage to France (1928)], Mieczyslaw Wolfke [report on research conducted in Leyden (1924)], Wojciech Rubinowicz, Stefan Pienkowski, Felicjan Kepinski, and Szczepan Szczeniowski, Ca. 1048 pp.
Russian Academy of Sciences. Moscow Branch. Archive. Cul. Novocheremushkinskaia, 34, Moscow 117218, Russia.
Papers of Kirill Ivanovich Shcholkin, 1911-1968. Physicist. Major affiliations include: Institute for Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1932-1941, 1944-1968), Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1961); Moscow Physico-Technological Institute (1961-1968). Series include: Scientific works and draft materials, mostly concerning the detonation of gases; most works are published, unpublished materials include notebooks with outlines of courses on basic burning, reviews of monographs, books and dissertations (43 folders 1950-1968). Papers by other authors and remade by Shcholkin. Among them there are his translation of Romer´s book Neugomonnyi atom (1963), amended papers for the collection of articles Atomic Science and the Technology in the USSR (1966-1967). 1928-1971. 99 folders.
Russian Academy of Sciences. St. Petersburg Branch. Archive. Universitetskaia hab., 1, Korp. 2, Saint Petersburg 199034, Russia.
Papers of Pavel Pavlovich Kobeka, 1897-1954. Physicist. Affiliations include: Leningrad Institute for Physics and Technology (1925-1944, 1947-1951); Leningrad Polytechnical Institute (1930-1954); Institute for High-Molecular Compounds (1952-1954). Collection includes scientific works and manuscripts (13 folders for 1931-1953) and biographical documents (17 folders for 1924-1954). 1924-1954. 37 folders.
Papers of Aleksandr Nikolaevich Terenin, 1896-1967. Physico-chemistry. Affiliations include: Vavilov State Optical Institute (GOI) (1919-1956); Leningra University (1925-1967); Bach Institute for the Biochemistry Academy of Sciences (1945-1960). Series include scientific works on photochemistry and photophysics (174 folders for 1909-1966); papers on administrative activity including notes, reports, programs, correspondence (44 folders for 1926-1967); biographical papers including photographs and portraits of Terenin and others; correspondence with, among others, E. D. Buen, S. I. Vol´fkovich, A. I. Kiprianov, F. D. Klement, A. A. Krasnovskii, A. V. Palladin, D. Porter, D. S. Rozhdestvenskii, IA. K. Syrkin (159 folders for 1921-1966); 24 folders of material concerning the work of others including A. I. Rabikovich, S. I. Vol´fkovich, M. A. Porai-Koshits, 1896-1968. 579 folders.
Papers of Gavriil Adrianovich Tikhov, 1875-1960. Astronomer. Affiliations include: Pulkovo Main Astronomical Observatory (GAO) (1906-1941); Leningrad University (1919-1931); Lesgaft Institute for Natural Sciences (1919-1949); Department for Astrobotanics of Academy of Science of Kazakhstan (1947-1960). Collection includes scientific works on astrobiology, photometrics, optics and optics of atmosphere, astrophysics, some problems of general astronomy, solar and lunar eclipses (1894-1959); drafts and calculations relating to scientific works; programs and notes from lectures on astrophysics (1919-1927); diaries and journals of observations and measurements during astronomical expeditions of 1925 and 1936; reviews of works and activity of others including V. A. Ambartsumian, N. A. Kozyrev, V. G. Fesenkov; popular articles from newspapers and magazines and autobiographical notes; materials relating to Tikhov´s administrative and scientific activities including expeditions and eclipse observations; correspondence with editors concerning publication of his works, and with foreign astronomical societies (1937-1959); biographical materials including photographs; personal correspondence with, among others, A. A. Bogomolets, K. E. Voroshilov, A. F. Ioffe, L. A. Kassil´, T. P. Kravets, O. A. Mel´nikov, N. A. Morozov, L. A. Orbeli, E. N. Pavlovskii, M. F. Subbotin, V. G. Fesenkov, A. L. Chizhevskii, G. A. Shain; papers by others including articles, dissertations, journals, and photos from expeditions. Ca. 1870s-1960. 939 folders.
Brown University. The John Hay Library. University Archives. Providence, RI 02912, USA (contact: Martha Mitchell).
Papers of Edward Allen Mason, 1926-1994. Chemist (physical chemistry). Professor of chemistry and engineering, rown University (1967-1994). Internationally recognized as an expert in the chemical physics of gases and fluids. Collection includes administrative files, professional correspondence, course lectures and related materials, research and project files, and reprints by Mason and others. Of particular note are the collection of course books (syllabus, problems, examinations, lecture notes, and grade books) compiled by Mason for each course he taught. For courses such as thermodynamics and kinetic theory, which Mason taught over many years, the course books provide insight into change and continuity in Mason´s teaching. Mason´s research files include folders for each work in progress, proposals/grants/calculations, and published papers (containing drafts, supporting data and calculations, and, in many cases, correspondence with editors, collaborators, and readers). Unprocessed. 31 lin. ft.
California Institute of Technology. Institute Archives. 1201 East California Blvd. (Mail Code 015A-74), Pasadena, CA 91125, USA (contact: Judith Goodstein or Shelley Erwin).
Addition to papers of Max Delbrück, 1906-1981. Biologist (biophysics) at California Institute of Technology. Includes correspondence with postdocs and others who were members of Delbrück´s research group from the mid-1960s until Delbrück´s death in 1981. 3 boxes, 1.5 lin. ft.
Papers of Robert V. Langmuir, 1912-1993. Professor emeritus of electrical engineering at Caltech. Member of team that first directly observed synchrotron radiation. Includes technical reports on World War II work on magnetron, material on discovery of synchrotron radiation, patent documents, and a small amount of material relating to teaching and research after the war. 1941-1990. 1 lin. ft.
Fisk University. Library. Dept. of Special Collections. Nashville, TN 37208-3051, USA (contact: Ann Allen Shockley).
Fisk University. Black Oral History Collection. Includes interviews with six physicists: Halson V. Eagleson, professor of physics and then chairman, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Howard University (1947-1971); Donald Edwards, head, Dept. of Physics, Agricultural College of North Carolina (1954-); Warren E. Henry, physicist, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (1948-); John M. Hunter, professor and head of Dept. of Physics, Virginia State College (1925-1967); Ronald Mickens assistant to professor, Dept. of Physics, Fisk University (1970-1981); and Arthur Thorpe, physicist, Howard University. Subjects discussed include family; education; career choices, influences, and highlights; research and funding; difficulties encountered by black students; geographic distribution of black students/scientists; reaction of white professional community to black scientists; physics departments at black institutions; and contributions by blacks to the field of physics. 6 interviews (416 mins.).
Records of the National Society of Black Physicists. Includes correspondence, newsletters, lectures, proceedings, workshops, programs etc. 1990-1996 (ongoing). 2 boxes.
Harvard University Archives. Pusey Library. Cambridge, MA 02138, USA (contact: Harley Holden).
Additions to records of Harvard University. Division of Engineering and Applied Physics. Includes correspondence, reports, minutes, budget, financial, and other records relating to the administration of the Division. Among the concerns and activities dealt with are grants and contracts (e.g., with the Advanced Research Projects Agency), students and teaching, personnel, committees, and other matters. Also includes records relating to contracts with individuals and organizations outside the University. Included (among others) are the records from the tenure of Harvey Brooks as Division dean. 1906-1978. 37 cu. ft.
Addition to papers of Harlow Shapley, 1885-1972. Astronomer (galaxies, photometry, spectroscopy) and administrator. Astronomer, Mt. Wilson Observatory (1914-1921); director, Harvard College Observatory (1921-1952); on the faculty at Harvard from 1952. Includes correspondence, data, requests for observations, photographs, and other papers relating to astronomical work; also manuscripts and drafts of writings. Ca. 1933-1955. 2 cu. ft.
Papers of Kenneth Tompkins Bainbridge, 1927-1996. Physicist (nuclear physics). Emeritus Leverett Professor of Physics, Harvard University (1975-1996). Includes correspondence, notes (laboratory, student, teaching), manuscripts, interview transcripts, photographs, reprints, clippings, and other papers. Material relates to Bainbridge´s research, teaching, consulting, political, and other interests and activities. He was in charge of the first atomic bomb explosion (Trinity) in 1945, and there are original and collected materials (e.g. clippings) on the Los Alamos laboratory, the bomb, and related topics. Ca. 1925-1990s. 40 cu. ft.
Papers of Karl Strauch, 1937-. Physicist (particle physics). On the Harvard physics faculty from 1953 (currently Leverett Professor of Physics, emeritus) and director of the Cambridge Electron Accelerator (1967-1974). Correspondence and other papers relating to Harvard University, professional organizations, research, teaching, etc. Among the specific topics represented are papers relating to the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics, Harvard laboratories and physics department, physics courses, and U.S. national and other laboratories. Unprocessed. 1950s-1993. 85 cu. ft.
Papers of Harvey Brooks, 1915-. Physicist. Gordon McKay Professor in the Division of Engineering and Applied Physics, dean of the Division (1956-1975), and Benjamin Peirce Professor of Technology and Public Policy (1976-1986) at Harvard University. Processed accessions inclue correspondence, memoranda, reports, and other papers relating to Brooks´s professional career. A significant percentage of the collection relates to organizations, universities, and government committees of which Brooks was a member or chair, including the National Science Foundation, the President´s Science Advisory Committee, and the National Academy of Sciences. Also includes personal papers from the early 1930s; material relating to nuclear issues from the 1940s and 1950s; material relating to his role as editor-in-chief of the Journal of the Physics and Chemistry of Solids; and teaching materials. Unprocessed papers of Brooks (4 cu. ft.) include notebooks for meetings and lectures attended (1951-1991), and lecture notes (1941-1942); also photographs, notes, and reports on the Harvard Underwater Sound Laboratory reunions. 1930s-1980s. 103.4 cu. ft.
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Archives and Records Office. One Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720, USA (contact: John Stoner).
Personal papers of Edwin Mattison McMillan, 1907-1991. Experimental physicist and Nobel Laureate; second director of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Personal papers are organized into three series: Correspondence, Awards and Honors, Early Career and Family Papers. They include correspondence, biographical sketches, clippings and photographs of family, classmates and professors. 1875-1984. 68 boxes.
Library of Congress. Manuscript Division. Washington, D.C. 20540-4680, USA (contact: Leonard C. Bruno).
Papers of George Edwin Mueller, 1918-. Physicist and engineer. Member technical staff, Bell Telephone Labs. (1940-1946); professor of electrical engineering, Ohio State University (1946-1957); vice-president and director, Space Systems, Space Technology Labs, CA (1956-1963); associate administrator, Manned Space Flight, NASA (1963-1970); president, Jojoba Propogation Labs, 1981-; and president, George E. Mueller Corporation (1984-). Unprocessed. Ca. 50,000 items.
National Archives and Records Administration. Textual Reference Branch. Archives II, College Park, MD 20740, USA (contact: Marjorie Ciarlante).
Records of the United States Naval Observatory. Scientific papers of the U.S. Naval Observatory Astronomers. 1861-1963. 179 cu. ft.
Additions to records of the U.S. Office of Science and Technology. Contains director´s chronological file. 1985-1986. 1.1 cu. ft.
Records of the U.S. National Technical Information Service. Records of the Clearing House for Federal Scientific and Technical Information. 1953-1968. 4.2 cu. ft.
National Archives and Records Administration. Pacific Sierra Region. 1000 Commodore Drive, San Bruno, CA 94066, USA (contact: Dan Nealand).
Records of U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Operations Office (San Francisco). Nuclear reactor development reports, SNAP Committee reports and other records. Includes narrative reports, correspondence, memoranda, graphs, charts, and photographs relating to contracted work performd by Atomics International, Northrop, General Dynamics, and other contractors for the Energy Research and Development Administration. Of particular interest are items related to the Pluto ram-jet project that concerned the development of nuclear-powered aircraft and SNAP (Subsystems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power) studies. Also included are project proposals and authorizations, progress and status reports, test data, design specifications, and site acquisition records. 1957-1965. 3 lin. ft.
Records of U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Research and Development project case files and related records of the 60-inch cyclotron. Design of the 60-inch cyclotron commenced in October 1936, construction began in January 1938, and operation began in May 1939. The cyclotron was rebuilt in July 1944, November 1949 and June 1954. It was eventually dismantled and the core portions were transferred to the University of California, Davis for graduate instruction. The records relate to the research and design of the cyclotron, building and modification of the accelerator, scientific research conducted using the accelerator, and maintenance of the mechanical subsystems of the apparatus. Included is a sample of significant scientific articles that resulted from research involving the 60-inch cyclotron. This is the complete set of known LBL 60-inch cyclotron records. 1939-1962. 6 cu. ft.
Records of U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Operation log books related to the research and development of the 88-inch cyclotron. The 88-inch cyclotron was part of the third generation of sector-focused cyclotrons built since 1960. These machines combined the high beam intensities of first-generation, conventional cyclotrons with the high energies of second-generation synchrocyclotrons. LBL´s 88-inch cyclotron was completed in 1961; the experimental program started soon after the first external beam was obtained in 1962. Log books for the 88-inch cyclotron. 1970. 12 cu. ft.
Records of U.S. Dept. of Energy. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Records of Luis W. Alvarez, 1911-1988. Physicist. Collection includes correspondence, minutes, photographs, awards, articles, reports, and research notes. Includes material on professional societies and laboratories, travel, Pyramid Project, JASON, magnetic monopoles, slow neutron beam experiments, Nobel Prize nomination, ballistic acoustics (related to assassination of President John F. Kennedy). 1956-1988. 77 boxes.
Records of U.S. Dept. of Energy. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Records of Melvin Calvin, 1911-. Physicist. Collection includes correspondence with the Office of Science and Technology Policy; correspondence, minutes, and reports for the President´s Science Advisory Committee; material on the Department of Energy Research Advisory Board, and NASA. Also included are proposals, publications, travel information, general correspondence, manuscripts, patents, information on lunar samples, and correspondence concerning bio-organic research. ca. 1950s-1985. 76 boxes.
Records of U.S. Dept. of Energy and Atomic Energy Commission. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Records of Edwin Mattison McMillan, 1907-1991. Experimental physicist and Nobel Laureate; second director of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Records organized into the following series: Correspondence (1933-1984), including letters of nomination and recommendation; Laboratories and Conference Papers (1948-1974), also includes symposium papers; Scientific Notes (1931-1982); Reprints (1927-1984); Crank File, Day Books and Calendars (1940-1983); Historical Research, Director´s Records (1938-1973); High Energy Accelerators Study Group (1948-1969); Paramount Pictures Case (1950-1967); Rand Corp. Board Papers (1954-1973); Certificates (1932-1968); Technical Drawings, Scrapbooks (1940-1970), mainly engineering drawings, including McMillan´s invention, the Synchrotron particle accelerator, and other major accelerators which he operated, designed or planned; Sound Recordings (1952-1973), including selected speeches and lectures; and Photographs, showing current and various early Rad Lab members, cyclotrons and other accelerators, McMillan´s discovery of neptunium and plutonium investigations (for which he won the Nobel Prize with Glenn T. Seaborg in 1951); high energy physics conferences and visitors to the Laboratory. 1927-1984.
National Center for Atmospheric Research/University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. Archives. PO Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA (contact: Diane Rabson).
Addition to records of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). NCAR was created in 1960 to provide a sophisticated facility for the collection and analysis of data from the atmosphere. The center was established by the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) with initial funding from the National Science Foundation. Includes records of early computing at NCAR (1960s-1970s), administrative committee records (1970s-present), National Science Balloon Facility records (1960s-1970s), data from the GATE Project (1970s), and records of the NCAR Director´s Office (1980s-present). Ca. 1960-1996.
Papers of Philip Duncan Thompson, 1922-1994. Meteorologist and physicist. Internationally known theoretician in numerical weather prediction, atmospheric dynamics, and turbulence. Research scientist at NCAR (1960-1994); also, first associate director, director of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Science, and director of the Advanced Study program at NCAR. Collection contains correspondence, calculations, project files, manuscripts of lectures and publications, laboratory notebooks, reprints, and photographs. Correspondents include Bert Bolin, Jule Charney, George Cressman, John von Neumann, C. G. Rossby, and J. Smagorinsky. Ca. 1945-1994. 39 cu. ft.
Papers of Warren Morton Washington, 1936-. Meteorologist (climatology). Research scientist at NCAR (1963-). Collection includes research notes, laboratory notebooks, videotapes, motion picture films, and reprints pertaining to early work on General Circulation Models. Also includes biographical material. Ca. 1963-1980. 8 cu. ft.
The Johns Hopkins University Special Collections, Milton S. Eisenhower Library, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218, USA (contact: Cynthia H. Requardt).
Papers of Gerhard H. Dieke, 1901-1965. Physicist (spectroscopy and solid state physics). Professor of physics, Jons Hopkins University. Collection consists mostly of personal items unrelated to his teaching and research at Hopkins. Included are some personal correspondence, travel passes and letters of introduction, notices of conferences, and a bibliography of his personal library. Of interest are Dieke´s published articles from "The Evening Sun" (Baltimore) dealing with science and education in the Soviet Union, written after a trip to Moscow in 1957. 1922-1963. 2 lin. ft.
Papers of Sally H. Dieke, 1913-1989. Astronomer and chemist, active in environmental issues. Collection includes papers relating to astronomy courses (1950-79) taught by Dieke, and her work (1970-89) with local environmental groups. Also includes her own student notebooks for chemistry, physics, and mathematics courses taken at George Washington University, Cornell University, and Johns Hopkins University. 1934-1989. 12.05 lin. ft.
University of California, Berkeley. The Bancroft Library. Regional Oral History Office. 486 Library, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA (contact: Ann Lage).
Oral history interview with John R. Whinnery, 1916-. Engineer (electromagnetics, microwaves, optoelectronics). From lecturer to professor of electrical engineering, University of California, Berkeley (1946-1987), head of dept. (1956-1959), dean of the College of Engineering (1959-1963). Interview describes family and youth; undergraduate education, University of California, 1930s; General Electric Advanced Engineering Program and microwave research (1937-1946), collaboration with Simon Ramo; research program at Hughes Aircraft (1951-1952); UC Berkeley College of Engineering (1946-1995): postwar graduate studies, growth of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics Research Laboratory, faculty recruitment and retention, undergraduate and graduate curriculum, governance issues as dean (1959-1963), former dean Murrough O´Brien; research and teaching in electromagnetic fields and waves and optoelectronics; services on governmental, scientific, and industry advisory boards, NASA Apollo program (1964-1969). 1996. Transcript: 273 pp.
University of Washington Libraries. University Archives. Mailstop #0-10. Seattle, WA 98195, USA (contact: Karyl Winn).
Papers of Fred Henry Schmidt, 1915-1991. Physicist and author. Member of faculty of the physics department at the University of Washington from 1946; Schmidt also worked in the Nuclear Physics Laboratory. Series includes research files, writings, correspondence, technical notes, curriculum files, speeches, photographs and subject files. 1949-1990. 15 cu. ft.