|Taught by Alexei Kojevnikov at California Institute of Technology,
Science After '40, ed. A.Thackray, - Osiris, vol. 7 (1992);
James D.Watson, The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery
and the Structure of DNA. (Mentor, 1969);
Big Science: The Growth of Large-Scale Research, eds. P.Galison,
B.Hevly (Stanford 1992);
David Dickson, The New Politics of Science (Chicago, 1984)
The practice of science and its social role changed dramatically as
a result of World War II. The course offers a comparative perspective on
the development of sciences in different countries and political systems
- the USA, Soviet Union, Europe - during the Cold War. The topics considered
include the emergence of big science, new sources of funding, political
and military influences on science, the international competition, environmental
crisis and response to it, criticism of science at the end of the century.
The Cold War era has recently come to an end - what changes for science
may follow from this?
of Readings and Topics
1. The Bomb.
Lawrence Badash, Scientists and the development of nuclear weapons:
from fission to the Limited Test Ban Treaty 1939-1963 (Atlantic Highlands,
"The Crucibles of Farm Hall," - in: Mark Walker, Nazi Science: Myth,
Truth, and the German Atomic Bomb (New York, 1995), 207-241
Alexei Kojevnikov, "Soviet Project before and after the American Bomb",
- Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 19 (1996), 165-167, 173-177.
2. "Swords into Ploughshares": War's Legacy.
"Scientific Activities in the Government, 1940-1962," - NSF Report 62-37;
Roger Geiger, "Science, Universities, and National Defense, 1945-1970"
- Osiris 7 (1992) 26-48
Paul Forman, "Inventing the Maser in Postwar America" - Osiris
7 (1992) 105-134
3. Molecular Biology
Lily Kay, The Molecular Vision of Life. Caltech, The Rockefeller
Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology (Oxford 1993) Ch. 7-8.
James D.Watson. The Double Helix. (1968)
Pnina Abir-Am, "The Politics of Macromolecules: Molecular Biologists,
Biochemists, and Rhetoric" - Osiris 7 (1992) 164-191
4. The Space Age
Walter A. McDougall. The Heavens and the Earth: A Political History
of the Space Age (Basic Books 1985);
Michael L. Smith, "Selling the Moon: The U.S. Manned Space Program
and the triumph of commodity scientism," - in: The Culture of Consumption:
Critical Essays in American history, 1880-1980, eds. Richard W. Fox,
T. J. Jackson Lears. (New York 1983)175-236.
Ron Doel, "Evaluating Soviet Lunar Science in Cold War America" - Osiris
7 (1992) 238-264
5. Changing Politics of Science
Derek J. de Solla Price. Little Science, Big Science (New York,
Daniel J. Kevles, "New revolt against science," - The Physicists
1995) 393-409. David Dickson. The New Politics of Science. (1984)
Introduction and Ch.1,3.
6. The Environment
Spencer Weart, "Global Warming, Cold War, and the Evolution of Research
Plans," - in press in: Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological
Sciences, 27 (1997) 319-356.
Dorothy Nelkin, "Scientists and Professional Responsibility: The Experience
of American Ecologists" - Social Studies of Science, 7 (1977) 75-95.
Samuel P. Hays, "The Politics of Environments Administration," - in:
New American State, ed. L.Galambos (Baltimore 1987) 21-53;
Sheila Jasanoff, "Science, Politics, and the Renegotiation of Expertise
at EPA" - Osiris 7 (1992) 195-217
7. Big Science
Robert Seidel, "The Origins of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory."
Dominique Pestre, John Krige, "Some Thoughts on the early History of
Robert W. Smith, "The Biggest Kind of Big Science: Astronomers and
the Space Telescope."
- all in: Big Science. The Growth of Large-Scale Research. (1992)
21-45, 78-99, 184-211
Peter Galison, "The Ontology of the Enemy: Norbert Wiener and the Cybernetic
Vision", Critical Inquiry, 21 (1994) 228-66.
Stan Augarten, Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers.
(New York, 1984)
9. End of the Cold War Science
David Dickson, The New Politics of Science. (1984) Ch. 4.
Yakov M. Rabkin. Science between the Superpowers. (New York
Loren Graham, "Big Science in the Last Years of the Big Soviet Union"
- Osiris. 7 (1992) 49-71 Daniel J. Kevles, "Reflections on the Death
of the SSC and the Life of the Human Genome Project," - in Historical
Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences
10. In Search of New Agendas
"Chaos: a new paradigm," - in: David Ruelle, Chance and Chaos,
(Princeton, 1991) 66-79
"Genetics, Embryology and Gene Action," - in: Evelyn Fox Keller,
Life: Metaphors of Twentieth-Century Biology (Columbia 1995)
Bruce V.Lewenstein, "Cold Fusion and Hot History," - Osiris
7 (1992) 135-163
David Dickson, The New Politics of Science, (1984) Ch. 2, 5,