2013 Physics Nobel Prize Resources

Francois Englert         Peter W. Higgs

» Overview
» Quote from Dr. H. Frederick Dylla, Executive Director and CEO of AIP
» Seminal papers, courtesy of the American Physical Society (free access)
» From Physics Today's "Search & Discovery"
» Every article that AIP Publishing has published from these Nobel Laureates (free access)
» More from AIP Journals and Conference Proceedings (free access)
» Key resources from the AIP Member Societies
» More from Physics Today
» Pictures, graphics, and multimedia
» Biographies
» Press release


In 1964, two young scientists known as Peter Higgs and Francois Englert (and a third, the now deceased Robert Brout, who was collaborating with Englert at the time) independently proposed a theory of how subatomic particles acquire mass. It would take nearly half a century, thousands of scientists and technicians and billions of dollars to find the capstone experimental proof, but when two gigantic experimental collaborations at the CERN laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland announced the discovery of the Higgs boson to the world on July 4, 2012, the theory was just about confirmed.

Of all the fundamental particles, the Higgs boson stands out as being fundamentally different from all the rest. The most complete explanation thus far in modern physics of how the universe works, the framework known as the Standard Model, holds that fields and their particle manifestations are the essential building blocks of the universe. This standard model rests upon the existence of the Higgs boson, which is connected to a field that fills up all of space and gives subatomic particles, such as electrons and quarks, their mass.

Quote from Dr. H. Frederick Dylla, Executive Director and CEO

“The question of how particles acquire mass has been one of the fundamental puzzles in particle physics and was the last piece of the standard model to fall into place,” said H. Frederick Dylla, the executive director and CEO of the American Institute of Physics (AIP). “This is one of the great achievements in the history of physics, and the awarding of the prize could not be more timely, since the Higgs boson was finally observed on July 4 last year at CERN in Switzerland.”

Seminal papers, courtesy of the American Physical Society (free access)

Seminal paper by François Englert:

Broken Symmetry and the Mass of Gauge Vector Mesons
F. Englert and R. Brout
Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 321 (1964)

Seminal paper by Peter W. Higgs:

Broken Symmetries and the Masses of Gauge Bosons
Peter W. Higgs
Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 508 (1964)

Additional seminal work

Global Conservation Laws and Massless Particles
G.S. Guralnik, C.R. Hagen, and T.W.B. Kibble
Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 585 (1964)

From Physics Today's “Search and Discovery”

The Higgs particle, or something much like it, has been spotted

Gauge symmetry saved, mass endowed

Every article that AIP has published from these Nobel Laureates (free access)

AIP journal content written by the 2013 Nobel Laureates in Physics is free until December 31, 2013.

AIP journal articles by François Englert:

Loop algebras and superalgebras based on S 7
F. Englert, A. Sevrin, W. Troost, A. Van Proeyen, and Ph. Spindel
J. Math. Phys. 29, 281 (1988)

Potential-Correlation Function Duality in Statistical Mechanics
C. De Dominicis and F. Englert
J. Math. Phys. 8, 2143 (1967)

AIP journal articles by Peter W. Higgs:

SBGT and all that
Peter Higgs
AIP Conf. Proc. 300, pp. 159-163 (1993)

Perturbation Method for the Calculation of Molecular Vibration Frequencies. III. Skeletal Stretching Vibrations of Normal Paraffins
P. W. Higgs
J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1450 (1955)

Perturbation Method for the Calculation of Molecular Vibration Frequencies. II. Generalization of the Theory
P. W. Higgs
J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1448 (1955)

A Method for Computing Zero-Point Energies
P. W. Higgs
J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1300 (1953)

An Application of Perturbation Theory to the F and G Matrix Method of Calculating Molecular Vibration Frequencies
P. W. Higgs
J. Chem. Phys. 21, 1131 (1953)

More from AIP Journals and Conference Proceedings (free access)

The topology of the electroweak interaction
Jürgen Tolksdorf
J. Math. Phys. 46, 042304 (2005)

Superconnections and the Higgs field
G. Roepstorff
J. Math. Phys. 40, 2698 (1999)

Deriving the standard model from the simplest two-point K cycle
R. Wulkenhaar
J. Math. Phys. 37, 3797 (1996)

Particle states and scattering theory in abelian gauge model with spontaneously broken symmetry
Garner Bishop and Kurt Haller
J. Math. Phys. 24, 932 (1983)

The frontier of high energy physics and the large hadron collider
Kalanand Mishra
AIP Conf. Proc. 1554, 9 (2013)

The Higgs mechanism and the origin of mass
Abdelhak Djouadi
AIP Conf. Proc. 1444, 45 (2012)

Seeking the origin of mass: Collider searches for Higgs bosons
Wade C. Fisher
AIP Conf. Proc. 1441, 103 (2012)

Key resources from the AIP Member Societies

AAPT Related Magazine and Journal Articles

Physics story of the year 2012; Higgs boson mass sorted by CERN
Dan MacIsaac
Phys. Teach. 50, 381 (2012)

The Higgs Boson: Is the End in Sight?
Don Lincoln
Phys. Teach. 50, 332 (2012)

A question of mass
Jeremy Bernstein
Am. J. Phys. 79, 25 (2011)

Resource Letter: SM-1: The standard model and beyond
Jonathan L. Rosner
Am. J. Phys. 71, 302 (2003)

Higgs articles from AJP and TPT

Higgs Boson: Physics at the Speed of Light

More from APS

APS recognized Higgs and Eglert (along with Robert Brout, Gerald Guralnik, Carl Hagen and Tom Kibble) with the 2010 J.J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Physics.

More from Physics Today

The Particle at the End of the Universe: How the Hunt for the Higgs Boson Leads Us to the Edge of a New World; Higgs: The Invention and Discovery of the ‘God Particle’
Don Lincoln
Phys. Today 66, July, 50 (2013)

The Large Hadron Collider yields tantalizing hints of the Higgs boson
Bertram M. Schwarzschild
Phys. Today 65, February, 16 (2012)

Reevaluation of Top Quark Data Raises Estimate of Higgs Boson's Mass
Bertram Schwarzschild
Phys. Today 57, August, 26 (2004)

Slowly but Steadily, Fermilab Pushes the Upgraded Tevatron toward Its Design Goals
Barbara Goss Levi
Phys. Today 55, June, 16 (2002)

Lights out at LEP
Bertram Schwarzschild
Phys. Today 53, December, 18 (2000)

LHC May Be on Collision Course with Higgs Boson
Gianluigi Fogli and Eligio Lisi
Phys. Today 49, March, 129 (1996)

The Concept of Mass
Lev B. Okun
Phys. Today 42, June, 31 (1989)

Identifying the Higgs Boson
John P. Rutherfoord
Phys. Today 38, February, 104 (1985)

Has the Higgs boson been seen in the Crystal Ball?
Bertram M. Schwarzschild
Phys. Today 37, October, 18 (1984)

Pictures, Graphics, and Multimedia

Photos of François Englert

Hi-res photo download
© 1998. Donated by François Englert, courtesy AIP Emilio Segrè Visual Archives

From Wikimedia
© F. Englert

© F. Englert

From Université Libre de Bruxelles

Photos of Peter W. Higgs

From Wikipedia
© Mathematisches Institut Oberwolfach

From the Guardian
© 2013 Guardian News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved.

Picture of both François Englert and Peter W. Higgs

From the European Parliament
© 2012, European Union

Videos of Peter W. Higgs

Peter Higgs University of Edinburgh News Conference
Peter Higgs CERN Interview
Peter Higgs Swansea University Interview

Videos of François Englert

François Englert CERN (French)
François Englert Lecture at Tel Aviv University

CERN Scientists Announce the Higgs Boson


François Englert biography

Peter W. Higgs biography

Press release

more Why is the Higgs Boson So Important? AIP Gathers Expert Commentary and Background Info on Nobel Prize Resource Page (10/8/13)