Number 61, January 3, 1992 by Phillip F. Schewe and Ben Stein|
B-QUARK BARYONS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED in data recorded at the CERN proton-antiproton collider. The UA1 collaboration, which discovered the Z and W bosons in the early 1980's, has been sifting collision events ever since and has compiled a sample of about sixteen rare events in which a lambda-b (a proton-like baryon containing a b quark) is created in proton-antiproton collisions; after this the lambda-b decays into a J/psi meson and a regular lambda baryon. Mesons with b quarks had been observed previously, but not baryons. On the basis of the UA1 sample of events, the mass of the lambda-b is estimated to be about 5600 MeV. (CERN Courier, Dec. 1991.)
BUCKYBALLS are Science Magazine's Molecule of the Year. What is the latest news in the carbon-60 saga? Typical are two papers given at the recent meeting of the Materials Research Society: Fred Wudl of UC Santa Barbara has been able to attach various chemical groups, such as urethane and hydroxyl groups, to points on the Buckyball exterior. Scientists at Northwestern have observed a frequency-doubling effect for laser light sent though a film of C-60. (Science, 20 Dec. 1991.)
A LIST OF "GUIDELINES FOR PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT" has been approved by The American Physical Society (APS) Council. First drafted by the APS Panel on Public Affairs, the document has four sections, which deal with the following subjects: research results, publications and authorship practices, peer review, and conflict of interest. The APS has invited comments from its members and may incorporate the guidelines into the APS bylaws. (APS News, Jan. 1992; this is the inaugural issue of the separately-published news adjunct to the regular monthly APS Bulletin.)
GALAXY REDSHIFTS ARE BUNCHED , according to a new study of 106 spiral galaxies. Using a radio telescope to make the observations, Bruce Guthrie and William Napier of the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, claim to detect a periodicity of about 37.5 km/sec in the distribution of galaxy velocities (computed from the redshifts) away from Earth. Such a periodicity would suggest that redshifts, at least those for the type of large spiral galaxies studied here, are not wholly related to the general expansion of the universe. This controversial notion will have to be tested in greater detail. (New Scientist, 21/28 Dec. 1991.)
PHYSICS NEWS IN 1991 , the annual review of physics highlights, is now available from the AIP Division of Public Information. Some of the leading topics include Buckyballs, new STM innovations, femtochemistry, Gamma Ray Observatory discoveries, 17-keV neutrinos, and visible light from porous silicon.
THE SOVIET ACADEMY OF SCIENCES has ceased to exist. Russian president Boris Yeltsin has stipulated that the Academy's possessions in Russia belong to what will become a new Russian science academy. The new institution does not yet have a budget or a president; Evgeny P. Velikhov, director of the Kurchatov Institute, is the leading contender for the job. (Nature, 19/26 Dec. 1991.)