|Salute to new Fellows
|by Patrick Young
Copel went on to study the electronic properties at the interface
between highdielectric materials, such as strontium titanate and barium
strontium titanate, and metals that form capacitor electrodes. That
work really changed some perceptions as to how these devices function,
Tromp says. More recently, Copel has worked with high-k materials,
which many people expect to replace silicon dioxide as the insulator
for gate electrodes in metaloxide- semiconductor field-effect transistors.
He has shown that medium-energy ion scattering is one of the few nondestructive
techniques that allows accurate, quantitative studies of the ultrathin
films composition and deposition depths (see figure).
Thirteen members of the Forum
on Industrial and Applied Physics were elected Fellows
of the American Physical Society, an honor bestowed each year
by the society on a select group of its members from industry,
academia, and government. Five of the FIAP members named Fellows
work in industry.
Matthew Warren Copel
For two decades, Copel has mastered and expanded the
use of medium-energy ion beam analysis to study electronic
materials. In the late 1980s, he investigated the use of surfactants
to grow germanium on a silicon surface. He showed that adsorbing
a monolayer of arsenic or antimony on the silicon surface
before beginning deposition prevented a major problemthe
clustering of germanium on the surfaceand enabled the
growth of very smooth films. The paper he co-authored
in 1989 has been referenced about 600 times, says Rudolf
M. Tromp, manager of molecular assemblies and devices at the
IBM T. J. Watson Research Laboratory.
|In Matt Copels work, to probe
thin-film composition with subnanometer depth resolution,
ions are dispersed with different energies and angles
and impinge on a channel plate, and the resultant charge
cloud is detected by this backgammon collector.
Matt is an accomplished physicist and a great experimentalist,
Tromp says. He has had a big impact in materials science,
in the academic and international scientific communities, as well
as within IBM.
Christopher J. Hardy
The father of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
is what Hardys former supervisor and collaborator, Bijan Dorri,
calls him. Chris has pushed cardiac MRI from just an idea
to a reality, says Dorri, General Electrics (GEs)
global technology leader for medical technologies. He created
ways to motion-freeze the heart and arteries, designed
the needed pulse sequences, and created visualization techniques.
Unlike the spine or muscle tissue, the heart beats rhythmically,
and arteries pulse as they expand and contract. The challenge Hardy
faced was how to freeze such movement to obtain a clear
image. Over a decade, he attacked various problems. He developed
the first graphical approach that allowed physicians to act in real
time during cardiac imaging, and a technique that improved imaging
speed, both of which are now major features of GEs interventional
and cardiovascular MRIs. Speed is particularly important in cardiac
MRIs because for certain examinations, physicians want to obtain
an image in the time a person can hold his or her breath. Otherwise,
the movement of the heart with breathing will distort the image.
MRI requires pulses of radio-frequency energy and magnetic-field
gradients, which are controlled by software. Different applications
require different pulse sequences, and for cardiac imaging, it is
crucial to apply the right pulse sequence to capture the moving
heart and arteries clearly. Hardy designed many pulse sequences
for cardiac MRI, creating the first two-dimensional, spatially selective
NMR excitations pulses, and later made key contributions to analytic-design
theory for two-dimensional pulses.
James H. Kaufman
In 1987, when Kaufman and his colleagues at the IBM Almaden
Research Center (San Jose, CA) began working on a new protective
overcoat for storage disks, read heads landed on disks, the spacing
between the head and medium was 300 Å, and the headdisk
interface typically survived 10,000 startstop cycles. We
developed an overcoat material that worked at 60 Å and below
and could survive more than 100,000 startstop cycles,
Protective coatings were made then by sputtering graphite onto
storage media. But carbon seeks to create four bonds, and forcing
it into a thin film creates an unnatural configuration with high
internal stress. I thought we might lower the stress by adding
nitrogen, which forms only three bonds, Kaufman says. That
was the key. We made the film harder, and we lowered the stress
by two orders of magnitude inside the film. That is what allowed
us to make it thinner. The resulting overcoat, commonly called
nitrogenated diamondlike carbon and produced by plasma-enhanced
chemical vapor deposition, is now the storage industry standard.
Since joining IBM in 1985, Kaufman has conducted research and managed
projects in areas such as condensed matter, magnetic materials,
and advanced materials. Today, he is exploring grid computing, which
harnesses the ideal time of many computers, from super to personal,
to accomplish huge computations. We are developing an innovative
system to help people who do not have dedicated, parallel computers
to solve big problems, Kaufman says.
Mark Howard Kryder
I suppose a thread runs through all of my work in magnetic
domains, says Kryder, which is understanding the magnetization
changes dynamically in a wide variety of magnetic thin films and
devices. As a graduate student in the l960s, Kryder built
the first high-speed (10 ns exposure time) Kerr magneto-optic system
that used a pulsed laser for photographing magnetic domains, which
he used to study Permalloy thin films. He went on to use similar
systems to explore the behavior of magnetic domains in areas such
as magnetic-bubble memory devices, magneto-optic recording, and
how magnetic domains affect the performance of magnetic recording
heads and media.
Kryder did most of his research at Carnegie Mellon University,
whose faculty he joined in 1978 and where he retains his title of
University Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering. In
1998, however, Seagate Technology named him senior vice president
and director of Seagate Research, and established a new laboratory
in Pittsburgh. Currently, Kryders research focuses on Seagates
efforts to achieve an areal storage density of 1 terabit/in2,
about 20 times that available today, and eventually a density of
50 terabits/in2 He finds both goals quite reasonable.
For several decades, people have predicted the limits of magnetic
recording, and they have all been exceeded, Kryder says.
It is true that a theory without an experiment is dry, but
it is equally true that an experiment without a good theory is blind,
says Suhir, who developed analytical models and design methods used
widely in the microelectronics and photonics industries. The Ukrainian-born
physicist, whose career path was recently described as going from
ships to chips, began his professional life in the former
Soviet Union, where he developed expertise in modeling and the structural
analysis of ship and aircraft parts.
After coming to the United States in 1980, Suhir worked for Exxon
Corp. and then joined AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1984. There,
he turned his skills to hightech materials and developed simple,
easyto- use but meaningful analytical models that really indicate
what affects what, and what is responsible for what. He also
published extensively on the physical behavior and reliability of
materials and structures in micro- and optical-electronic systems,
thus setting forth the fundamentals of a discipline sometimes called
structural analysis in microelectronics and photonics.
After 18 years at Bell Labs, Suhir joined iolon, Inc. (San Jose,
CA), as vice president of reliability and packaging, and more recently,
he formed his own company, ERS (Los Altos, CA). We have this
material that will have a strong impact in photonics and in some
other industries, Suhir says.
|FIAP's New Fellows
|Michael E. Coltrin
Sandia National Laboratories
For contributions to the fundamental understanding of
the gas-phase and surface chemical processes in the chemical
vapor deposition of semiconductor materials.
T. J. Watson Research Laboratory
For contributions to the development of ion beam analytical
methods and to the fundamental understanding of the structure,
properties, and reactions of electronic materials.
For extensive and substantive contributions in applied
physics and engineering science that have yielded an improved
understanding of radiation effects in solid-state devices.
General Electric Corporate Research and Development
For contributions to the science and technology of magnetic
resonance imaging, particularly methods for the noninvasive
visualization of cardiac anatomy, function, and metabolism,
and for the MRI selective pulse design.
University of Virginia
For the development of pioneering in situ electron microscopy
techniques for elucidating dislocation physics in semiconductors
and in strained-layer epitaxial systems.
|James H. Kaufman
IBM Almaden Research Center
For his invention of nitrogenated diamondlike carbon that
has become a standard protective overcoat in the disk
|Mark Howard Kryder
Seagate Technology LLC
For outstanding contributions to the understanding of
magnetic domain behavior, and leadership in the technologies
of information storage.
Sandia National Laboratories
For pioneering contributions to the development of two-
and three-dimensional photonic crystals for 1.55-µm
optical communications applications.
University of Washington
For innovative studies of interface formation between
dissimilar materials, especially the competition between
thermodynamic and kinetic constraints in controlling morphologies
and properties of heterostructures.
|Fernando A. Ponce
Arizona State University
For novel applications of electron microscopy for measurement
of semiconductor interface atomic arrangement and the
effect of atomic structures on the electronic and optoelectronic
properties of materials.
For distinguished contributions to the field of analytical
modeling of the physical behavior and reliability of microelectronic
and photonic materials and systems.
New Jersey Institute of Technology
For the discovery of a method to stabilize porous silicon
and for innovative contributions to the development and
studies of silicon- based, self-organized nanostructures.
|Gerald Lee Witt
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
For exemplary leadership of national interdisciplinary
research efforts in the fields of quantum- effect devices,
low-temperature GaAs, optoelectronic measurement techniques,
radiation effects, and defects in wide-bandgap semiconductors.
The Forum department is initiated by the American Physical Societys
Forum on Industrial and Applied Physics (FIAP). For more information
about the Forum, please visit the FIAP
Web site, or contact the chair,
Kenneth C. Hass.