Physics Today Daily Edition
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Updated: 2 hours 32 min ago
Extra Dimensions: New results and upcoming experiments offer hope that neutrinos hold the key to expanding the standard model.
New York Times: Off the coast of Rhode Island, five wind turbines that make up the Block Island Wind Farm are being readied for testing in October. Although the project will generate only enough power for about 17 000 homes, it looks to be just the first of many offshore wind ventures as the US pushes for more renewable energy. Some 50 000 turbines are already running on land in the US, where they are cheaper and easier to build. However, ocean wind represents a much steadier, and so far untapped, resource, particularly for the US Northeast, where electrical demand and power rates are high. Unlike Europe, which has been operating offshore wind turbines for more than two decades, the US has been slow to adopt the technology. However, its success abroad may help speed its introduction to the US and bring down the initial costs of installation.
New Scientist: After two years of radio silence, NASA has announced that it has successfully reestablished contact with STEREO-B, one of a pair of spacecraft that have been orbiting the Sun since 2006. The mission of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) has been the study of the Sun’s coronal mass ejections. The two spacecraft were so successful initially that the mission got extended several times. In 2014, however, as the spacecraft were about to pass to the far side of the Sun, NASA controllers lost contact with STEREO-B during a planned test of its computer reboot system. It is thought that the probe started spinning out of control, much like what happened to Japan’s Hitomi spacecraft. Although NASA has now managed to make contact with STEREO-B, scientists do not yet know whether the spacecraft will be able to resume normal operations.
New Scientist: To develop better and safer tools for use in biomedical imaging, researchers have worked with both conventional and polariton lasers. Neither has proven satisfactory because the first requires a lot of energy and the second, extremely low temperatures. Now Malte Gather of the University of St. Andrews in the UK and colleagues have overcome both problems by engineering a laser from the green fluorescent proteins found in jellyfish. The researchers placed a thin film of fluorescent protein between two mirrors and got it to fluoresce by shining blue light on it. The result is an organic polariton laser that could be embedded in living tissue and used to map and differentiate among thousands of types of cells.
Nature: After the discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012 at the 27-km-circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC), bigger and better facilities have been proposed to continue the search for new particles. Among them are the 31-km-long International Linear Collider to be built in Japan and two 50 km to 100 km circular colliders, one for protons and the other for electrons and positrons, in China. However, all will cost considerable money to build, and any one project could drain international funding from the others. A less expensive option, proposed by CERN’s director-general Fabiola Gianotti, would be to increase the power of the LHC by installing new superconducting magnets. Rather than turning to powerful colliders, some physicists are hoping novel experiments will lead to the discovery of new physics. The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment under construction at Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, will analyze neutrino oscillations and look for new types of neutrinos beyond the currently known three.
But DOE wants the contractor to reach out to regional universities and to bring more diversity to the lab’s staff.
Los Angeles Times: More than two years ago, a drum of nuclear waste exploded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in Carlsbad, New Mexico. The explosion caused the facility massive long-term damage, which has stalled the shipment of thousands of tons of radioactive waste from US nuclear plants. The accident also led to the discovery of some two dozen safety lapses that had cropped up over 15 years of operation. The Department of Energy, which manages the site, has been slow to clean up but hopes to reopen the site for limited use by the end of the year. To meet its contractual obligations to dispose of waste from US nuclear weapons research and production, DOE has said the facility may have to stay open longer than planned or increase the amount of waste it accepts each year.
Ars Technica: Since the end of the space shuttle era, NASA has been developing its next-generation launch vehicle. Called the Space Launch System, it is set to be the most powerful rocket ever built. It could also be the most expensive. Keeping costs down is “going to take some different thinking and maybe a little bit more risk taking,” said Bill Hill, NASA deputy associate administrator for exploration systems development, in an interview with Ars Technica. The goal, he says, is to keep production and operations costs to $2 billion or less, or roughly half NASA’s annual budget, so that the other half could be used to fund human missions to the Moon or Mars.
The strange nanoparticles are yet more evidence that in materials science, small is different.