Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics
Minutes of Meeting
1. The Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics met in the offices of the Institute, 335 East 45 Street, New York, New York 10017.
Members Present: H. Richard Crane – Chairman, George B. Benedek, Joseph A. Burton, Harold A. Daw, I. E. Dayton, F R. Eirich, Kenneth W. Ford, James B. Gerhart, W. W. Havens, Jr., Gerald Holton, Robert E. Hopkins, John C. Johnson, E. Leonard Jossem, H. William Koch, John S. Laughlin, A. I. Mahan, Jarus W. Quinn, J. Sandweiss, Martin Schwarzschild, Frederick Seitz, F. Dow Smith, A. A. Strassenburg, Wallace Waterfall
Absent: Robert T. Beyer, Michael Ference, Jr., Joseph L. Fowler, Laurence W. Fredrick, S. A. Goudsmit, G. A. Jeffrey, Wilbur V. Johnson, J. A. Krumhansl
Guests: Herbert I. Fusfeld, Conyers Herring, Philip Morse, Charles Tolbert
AIP Staff Present: H. William Koch, Director; Wallace Waterfall, Secretary; G. F. Gilbert, Treasurer; Lewis Slack, Associate Director for General Activitie;s Robert H. Marks, Assoc. Director for Publishing and Information; Dorothy M. Lasky, Assistant to the Director; Mary M. Johnson, Assistant to the Secretary
Chairman Crane called the meeting to order at 9:34 a.m. and introduced the new Board members present: Messrs. Gerhart, Laughlin, Quinn, Sandweiss, Smith, and Strassenburg. He noted that Mr. Tolbert had been invited to attend the meeting as an observer for the American Astronomical Society inasmuch as Mr. Fredrick could not be present.
Upon motion made and passed without dissent, the minutes of the Governing Board meeting of September 20, 1972, were approved as distributed.
3. Report of Annual Corporation Meeting
Waterfall reported that the annual meeting of the AIP corporation, required by New York State law, had been held just prior to the present meeting. The usual brief reports were submitted including the names of the members of this Board elected by the Member Societies who officiallytake office at the time of the annual corporation meeting. Minutes of the meeting will be distributed to Secretaries of all Member Societies.
4. Report of Chairman
The Chairman said he was pleased to receive prior to the meeting the blue book with multicolored enclosures giving background information about various subject on the meeting agenda. He hoped that this custom would be continued.
Crane said he understood that his duty under this agenda item was to review actions taken by the Executive Committee which met yesterday and about which Governing Board members had not yet been informed through minutes. He reported the following:
It was decided to go ahead with the publication of an English translation of a new Chinese physics journal called WULI. A small subsidy has been requested from NSF but the staff has been authorized to go ahead with the publication whether or not subsidy is received.
It is now five years since AIP and Sigma Pi Sigma signed an agreement to merge activities in the Society of Physics Students. The agreement stipulates that residual Sigma Pi Sigma funds, held by a trustee committee, should now be turned over to AIP for specific uses. It is understood that the funds amount to about $20,000. The Executive Committee reaffirmed its understanding of the terms of the agreement and indicated that it would accept the funds under the terms stated.
We have learned that, if we are to continue receiving large contributions on publication charges from Government laboratories, we must adopt an Affirmative Action Program as required by the Office of Equal Opportunity. For years AIP has been complying with the principles established by OEO but that is not enough. Therefore, the Executive Committee adopted a statement of policy on this subject and is proceeding to develop the kind of affirmative action program which we believe is required.
5. Annual Report for 1972 – Authorization to Publish in PHYSICS TODAY
Koch referred to a draft of the report which had been distributed to all members of the Governing Board prior to the meeting in the blue booklet. He pointed out that the report was intended to cover events of calendar year 1972 only, that a number of things had happened since the first of 1973 which are not included but will be included in the report for 1973. He said that the report was a draft and said that he would be glad to receive questions and suggestions for improving it.
A number of suggestions were made by Board members and recorded for use in preparing the final draft.
Benedek was particularly critical that more had not been said about the recommendations made by Society officers at the Assembly last September and the actions taken by the Governing Board in response to these recommendations.
Havens said APS had found that it was desirable to publicize over and over what the Society is doing about the employment situation in order to satisfy members. Havens noted that comments on this subject were included in the very last part of the report and he suggested it would be advisable to mention these activities earlier.
Schwarzschild said he felt that the paragraph on Page 19 of the draft was not a candid description of the major difficulties experienced by AIP in the convergence of the subscription fulfillment system. Koch said that a report on the conversion was on the agenda for dicussion during the afternoon and he suggested that would be an appropriate time to discuss the subject further.
Johnson then made the following motion which was seconded and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the draft as presented by the Director be accepted except for the paragraph referring to conversion difficulties and the two paragraphs on Page 21 of the draft referring to the closing of the Washington Office and the results of last fall's Assembly.
Later in the day Schwarzschild submitted the following motion which was seconded and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the first paragraph under "Fiscal Branch" on Page 19 of the draft of the annual report be changed to read as follows, beginning with line 4:
"The remainder of the redesign involving a conversion of the existing Master History Record File to the new system requirements produced difficulties which were unfortunately not foreseen; these resulted in an inability to process new member applications, new subscriptions, and changes in the existing records for some months. This occurrence has had negative effects on some 5,000 members (out of a total of 52,000) and on many Society officers which AIP sincerely regrets."
Following the above motion Benedek again spoke about the inadequate coverage of last fall's Assembly actions in the annual report and said he recommended that the precise motions passed by the Assembly be included in the annual report and that more prominence be given to that part of the report by moving it closer to the beginning.
The following motion was finally made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the draft of the annual report for 1972 as submitted by the Director but modified in accordance with suggestions and actions at this meeting be adopted as the Annual Report of the Board of Directors to the AIP Member Societies and that publication of the report in PHYSICS TODAY be authorized.
6. Financial Matters
Financial Report for 1972
Gilbert distributed copies of his letter to all Governing Board members dated 30 March 1973 containing estimated figures for the 1972 calendar year. He made brief comments about various figures. He emphasized that these figures had just become available and had not yet been audited. He indicated that final figures for AIP and the Societies would be ready about the third week in April. The Secretary said that the final financial statement would be distributed along with the minutes of this meeting and copies are enclosed. Copies of the auditor' s statement will be sent to Secretaries and Treasurers of all Member Societies as soon as it is available.
Financial Handling Charge for 1974
Our By–Laws provide that, in the spring of each year, the Governing Board shall fix the financial handling charge for the following calendar year. Gilbert said that the charge had been 5/8 of 1% for 1973 and that the Executive Committee, at its meeting yesterday, recommended that the same charge be adopted for 1974. The following motion was then made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the financial handling charge for calendar year 1974 be set at 5/8 of 1%. (0.625%).
Secretary's note: The four following committee reports by Seitz, Morse, Fusfeld, and Herring were recorded. Unedited transcriptions have been made and are on file in the Secretary's Office. Copies are available on request.
7. Reports of Committees Advisory to Governing Board
Long–Range Planning Committee
Seitz named the members of his committee and said that, at this time, he intended to give only a relatively brief preliminary report. Certain studies by subcommittees have been started and he said that he hoped to be able to present a more formal final report later this calendar year, probably at the fall meeting of the Governing Board. This is a period of great frustration for the scientific community and physics is not unique in the problems it is facing. The money and attention which have been lavished on physics in the recent past has diminished rapidly and we have returned to a condition which should be considered as normal for the human race with competition for both jobs and money. This, therefore, is an appropriate time for AIP and other scientific institutions to take stock of themselves, examine their objectives, and set a course for the future.
Seitz reviewed the circumstances leading to the formation of AIP and the purposes for which AIP was formed. In the years since, AIP has faced various financial and organizational problems and some of those are still with us and need better solutions than have been found to date. It is the purpose of the committee to study all of these as well as any other problems which may be presented. For that purpose four subcommittees have been created with membership and assignments as indicated below:
AIP Purpose and Charter, Membership and Governance
Robert T. Beyer, George B. Benedek, Gerald Holton, F. Dow Smith
Inter-Society Communications, and Public Relations
William Havens, Jr., Jarus Quinn, Leonard Jossem, Wallace Waterfall
Finances, Services, and Operations
Kenneth Ford, Joseph Burton, A. A. Strassenburg, Martin Schwarzschild, Aden Meinel
Location of AIP
Herbert Fusfeld, Joseph Fowler, E. R. Piore, Frederick Seitz
Crane asked for comments and a number of statements were made and questions asked. Schwarzschild pointed out that the Institute, over the years, had taken on a number of activities in addition to the services to Member Societies for which it was originally formed and he wondered whether these new activities were distracting the Director and his key staff so that the day-to-day service activities are endangered.
Johnson pointed out that all Member Societies are not equally interested in AIP's existing or proposed activities. Some have unique interests and would prefer to pursue them themselves rather than turn them over to AIP.
Benedek emphasized the need for continuing attention to the physics manpower situation and hoped that the Long–Range Planning Committee and its sub-committees would recommend the establishment of some kind of structure which would assure permanent attention to this problem.
Ad Hoc Committee on Physics and National Problems
Morse started his report by pointing out that his committee had been formed as a result of action taken at the Governing Board meeting last September in response to recommendations made by the Assembly of Society Officers and Governing Board members which had met just preceding the Board meeting. One of those recommendations was that a meeting should be arranged with the President's Science Advisor to acquaint him with the desire of physicists to help in the solution of national problems and determine how such help might be rendered. Since then the President's Science Advisor has resigned and his office has been abolished and there has been much uncertainty about where science stands with respect to Government. Morse said his committee had been formed as an ad hoc committee to appraise the situation with the expectation that it would be replaced by another committee or committees to implement any recommendations which might be forthcoming. Morse said that he and Crane had been delegated to name the members of the committee and that, at present, the committee consists of Philip Morse, William O. Baker, Richard Bolt, Solomon Buchsbaum, Herman Feshbach, Milan Fiske, Kenneth Ford, W. W. Havens, Jr., Gloria Lubkin, Joel Primack, W. D. Compton, George Benedek, and George Pake, with Crane, Koch, and Slack ex officio.
Morse said that his committee had met three times to date. The first meeting in January was to appraise the situation and, at that meeting, W. O. Baker gave a report on the status of affairs in Washington which was most helpful. At that meeting it was decided that the committee should try to arrange a meeting with Guyford Stever, head of NSF, who was apparently slated to take over many of the duties of the President's Science Advisor. It was also agreed at that meeting that the committee, in meeting with Stever, should not go empty-handed with questions but should have some specific suggestions to make. It was agreed that one suggestion should be the establishment of some program to increase communication between industry and academic physics. Another suggestion would be that an intensive study of the whole question of energy be planned with heavy participation by physicists. Certain members of the committee were asked to concentrate on these suggestions and be prepared to present them at a meeting with Stever. On March 2 the meeting was held with Stever. Morse said he believed Stever and his staff had been favorably impressed and it had been agreed that various members of the committee would continue discussions with various members of Stever's staff. Morse said the committee realized that there are Government agencies other than NSF which might profit by help and advice from physicists but there is no point in going to these other agencies until physicists have developed specific recommendations about how their help may prove useful.
Morse indicated that the committee expected to have one more meeting at which it hoped to arrive at specific recommendations to be presented to the Governing Board. In the meantime, APS has shown great interest in promoting a study of the energy problem and in organizing a summer study group for this purpose.
Much discussion followed, mostly about the possibility of a summer study on the energy problem and who should organize it. Havens said that the original proposal was for a large summer study in the summer of 1974. Conversations with Chauncey Starr, President of the newly-established Electric Power Research Institute, had indicated that he might be willing to subsidize an immediate study on the feasibility of some of the more exotic forms of energy production which have been suggested. Havens said that a majority of the members of the APS Executive Committee were enthusiastic about having APS involved.
A question was raised about what further steps AIP should take at the present time. Crane responded that the ad hoc committee will have discharged its responsibility when it has its next and final meeting and renders its report to the Governing Board. Then will be the time for the Governing Board to take whatever action seems appropriate. It appeared to be the consensus that Member Societies should take the lead in making proposals to Government where they believe they can be helpful in the solution of national problems and that AIP should make available its fiscal and other staff services if requested. However, some Board members felt that AIP should watch all such developments carefully and that the Governing Board might wish to authorize AIP to initiate action on problems of concern to all physicists if it appears that Member Societies are not interested in taking action themselves. The following motion was then made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the Board express its approval of and enthusiasm for the work done by the ad hoc committee and would like to go on record as being desirous of supplying the normal AIP fiscal, management, and other staff services to any Member Society who wishes to undertake projects identified by the committee.
The meeting recessed for luncheon and the annual Board photograph between 12:15 p.m. and 1:18 p.m.
8. Reports of Committees Advisory to AIP Management
Koch introduced this subject by saying that AIP had seven committees advisory to management and that two of them have been asked to report today. The Advisory Committee on Corporate Associates is chaired by Herbert Fusfeld, former member-at-large of the AIP Governing Board and currently President of the Industrial Research Institute. AIP has approximately 100 Corporate Associates and they contribute about $100,000 per year in dues to AIP.
Corporate Associates – Plans for Fall Meeting
Fusfeld reviewed briefly the history of the fall meetings of Corporate Associates. He pointed out that in this country approximately 30 billion dollars per year is expended on R&D. The Government's share is about 17 billion and industry's about 12. In recent years Government support has been barely holding its own whereas
industry support has been increasing. Industrial support of physics per se has never been large but, nevertheless, industry is vitally interested in physics. No one from industry ever speaks of "industrial physics" and "academic physics" as if there were a difference between the two. Physicists in industry feel a strong link to academic physicists because industry depends entirely on the universities for trained physicists.
Fusfeld then spoke about the format of Corporate Associate meetings in the past and some people had suggested that it was time for a change. He believed that more coupling between physicists in industry and those in academic institutions would be helpful to both groups and he suggested that the Corporate Associates assembly might be used for that purpose. His committee was considering recommending that the Institute try scheduling a simultaneous meeting of Corporate Associates and some reasonable section of the university community. For the latter group we might consider inviting the heads of all physics departments from universities giving graduate work in physics. It is believed that the two groups have a vital interest in each other and that the Institute has an excellent opportunity to act as a catalyst in developing a useful relationship. He requested comments from Board members.
In the discussion which followed it was clear that, if a joint meeting of academic and industrial physicists is to be effective, it should provide an opportunity for panel discussions and workshops where relatively small groups can tackle specific problems. No very specific suggestions emerged but it appeared to be the consensus that the advisory committee should give further thought to the possibility of such a joint meeting. The following motion was made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the advisory committee be encouraged to continue its planning for a joint meeting of academic and industrial physicists and that such a meeting be approved if the advisory committee so recommends.
AIP Information Program
Koch said that this committee had been set up by AIP a number of years ago to advise AIP management on various aspects of the development of the AIP Information Program. All AIP Member Societies have been invited to nominate one or more members of the committee and the membership has rotated periodically. Koch then named the current members of the committee.
Herring started his report by saying he believed that the principal purpose in setting up the committee in the first place was to provide AIP with grass roots advice from potential users of the various products being developed in the Information Program. Herring said he did not believe the committee had been as effective as hoped because it is extremely difficult to appraise public acceptance of an entirely new variety of products and services. The committee has been meeting only about once per year and members have not actually had time to become deeply involved in information problems in intervals between meetings.
Herring pointed out that the very large financial support which NSF has given to the program will end at the end of this calendar year and, thereafter, the program must be supported by income from the sale of products developed and such support as the Member Societies are willing to give it. He then discussed the various products and the progress which had been made in developing markets for them. Such markets develop slowly and it is obvious that some additional financial support will be necessary for a few years while markets are developing. The additional support needed hinges largely on what the AIP Member Societies are willing to do. The advisory committee has not felt it appropriate for it to make any recommendations in this connection.
When Herring had completed his report several questions were asked. Herring had pointed out that there are many problems ahead for the AIP Information Program and Mahan wanted to know whether the advisory committee had any recommendations to make about the best way of approaching these problems. Herring answered that his committee had not been able to look that far ahead. Benedek said that academic physics departments should be some of the best customers for CPI products and he asked whether a direct appeal for support had been made to the heads of academic physics departments. Koch replied that samples of the various CPI publications had been distributed but he agreed that a more direct and personal approach to physics department heads would be appropriate.
9. Publishing Matters
Marks gave a brief report on the status of various publishing activities. This is a period of rapid change in publishing techniques and AIP has been taking advantage of some of these changes to save money. Typewriter composition is being adopted by more and more journals because it offers a very substantial saving. AIP continues to improve its capabilities along this line but is also continuing experimentation with computer photocomposition. A number of our journals are now being produced on web offset presses and more will be produced on such presses as Lancaster and other suppliers increase their capacity with the new equipment being installed. Web offset can give a saving of 10 – 20% in printing prices but, unfortunately, part of this will be lost because of the rapidly increasing prices of paper.
There were a few questions about some of the statements made by Marks and general agreement that AIP should be commended for its success in reducing publishing costs and for its urging of Member Societies to adopt methods which save money.
10. Report of Nominating Committee for Current Year
Report of Committee and Election
Crane and Waterfall excused themselves and Dayton was asked to serve as chairman pro tem. He called on Burton to read the report of the Nominating Committee.
Burton read the report and placed in nomination the following slate:
- Chairman – H. Richard Crane
- Secretary – Wallace Waterfall
- Executive Committee for 1 year:
- Joseph A. Burton
- W. W. Havens, Jr.
- A. I. Mahan
- E. Leonard Jossem
- G. A. Jeffrey
- Gerald Holton
- H. Richard Crane
- H. William Koch, ex officio
- Director–at–large for a 3–year term: S. Millman
The following motion was then made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the slate of candidates as proposed by the Nominating Committee be elected.
Crane and Waterfall were then invited back into the meeting and advised of the results of the election.
Appointment of Nominating Committee for 1974 Elections
Crane said he would normally not appoint the Nominating Committee for next year's election until the fall meeting. However, Wallace Waterfall has asked to be relieved of the Secretaryship at the spring 1974 meeting and it is believed that the Nominating Committee will need more time to find a suitable replacement. Without dissent from members of the Board Crane then named the following Board members as the Nominating Committee for the 1974 elections:
- W. W. Havens, Jr., Chairman
- Jarus W. Quinn
- A. A. Strassenburg
Dayton said he had been reading a report of the APS Committee on the Future of the APS in which it was suggested that the future Secretary of AIP should be someone actively involved in APS affairs. He said he was alarmed by this statement because he foresaw the possibility of a struggle between Member Societies as to which one should possess the Secretaryship. He agreed that experience as a Society officer is an important criterion for the Secretaryship but he believed there might be a conflict of interest if one person occupied two positions simultaneously. Dayton then made the following motion:
MOVED that, for future officers, it be the policy of the Governing Board that AIP corporate officers not be concurrently officers or paid employees of Member Societies.
The above motion was seconded and then discussed with some feeling. Havens said that the proposed action was quite unexpected and quite contrary to what had been AIP policy in the past. Both George Pegram and Waterfall, the only two Secretaries AIP has ever had, were or have been officers of Member Societies during their entire tenure as Secretary of AIP. Both Havens and Koch expressed the opinion that the dual roles of the two AIP Secretaries had not detracted from their usefulness to AIP and, in fact, had been beneficial to both AIP and the Member Societies. Havens suggested that action on Dayton's motion be postponed until further thought could be given to the matter and he introduced motion to table Dayton's motion but the tabling motion was defeated. During the discussion it was made clear to Waterfall (who was listening with some embarrassment) that neither the proposed motion nor any comments made in connection with it were intended to imply any criticism of the way he had handled the
There was a call for the question and a vote was taken on the Dayton motion. A show of hands showed eleven in favor of the motion and six opposed. The Chairman declared the motion had passed.
11. Approval of SPS Constitutional Amendments
Slack stated that the SPS constitution requires that any constitutional changes be approved by the Governing Board of the Institute. Certain changes have now been proposed by SPS (Exhibit A) and the Executive Committee, at its meeting yesterday, recommended that the Governing Board approve these changes. The following motion was then made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the proposed changes to the SPS constitution be approved.
The SPS constitution also requires that the AIP Governing Board approve of the officers and council members selected by SPS. Slack then distributed a list of the names of those for whom approval is sought (Exhibit B). The following motion was then made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the officers and council members of SPS as proposed be approved.
12. Appointment of Committees and Representatives for Current Year
Waterfall pointed out that a list of proposed committees and representatives had been distributed to all Board members prior to the meeting and that the Executive Committee, at its meeting yesterday, recommended that the list be approved. The following motion was then made, seconded, and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the proposed committees and representatives (Exhibit C) be appointed and that the Chairman and Director be given authority to add names or change the membership of committees as may seem necessary during the coming year.
Havens referred to the criticism which Member Societies have received from their members because of the difficulties which have been experienced with AIP subscription fulfillment operations. He said he believed these operations are of vital importance to Member Societies and to the Governing Board and that the Governing Board should have a standing committee consisting of Board members which will report to it periodically on the quality of the operations. He made the following motion which was seconded and passed without dissent:
MOVED that the Chairman and Director appoint a committee consisting of Board members and charged with the responsibility of reporting periodically to the Board on AIP philosophy, policies, and procedures concerned with dues billing and subscription fulfillment operations.
13. Resolution re Mary E. Warga
Waterfall said it was customary for the Governing Board to take note of the retirement of members of the Board who have served the Institute long and well. He said he felt that such a resolution regarding Mary Warga would be appropriate. He then read the wording of a suggested resolution but said he would like the help of Jarus Quinn in preparing the final draft. A motion was then made approving in advance the final draft to be prepared by Quinn and Waterfall. The final draft is as follows:
WHEREAS Mary E. Warga served on the Governing Board of the American Institute of Physics thirteen years from 1960 to 1973 and on the Executive Committee eight years from 1963 to 1971, and
WHEREAS her warm personality and engaging manner are cherished by spectroscopists everywhere and by the members of the Governing Board with whom she has served, and
WHEREAS she has evidenced deep commitment to the unity of physics, physicists, and the societies of physics within the American Institute of Physics,
BE IT RESOLVED that the Governing Board express its appreciation to Mary E. Warga for her many years of devoted service and wish her good health and continuing contributions to the scientific community in her retirement.
14. Status Report on Revision of Subscription Fulfillment System
Gilbert distributed copies of his memorandum dated March 31, 1973, (Exhibit D) which contained information not available for distribution before the meeting. He said that one thing the staff had learned from the recent fulfillment difficulties was that three dues notices are really not necessary. In the future it is planned to have only two notices as we are doing this time. This procedure will save money and we believe it will be just as effective as the three notices.
Gilbert said that the staff is planning to hold a meeting of the AIP Committee of Secretaries and Treasurers about the middle of May to discuss plans for separate dues billings for 1974. All aspects of the dues billing and subscription fulfillment operations will be discussed with the Society officers at that time and certain changes being made will be explained to them. From this meeting we expect to get a better idea of the wishes of the Societies and we also hope that the Society officers will help us improve our procedures.
Several questions were asked by Board members and answered by Gilbert. One question discussed was whether the Societies would like to have the Institute send some kind of explanatory and apologetic letter to Society members who have been adversely affected by our difficulties. Board members agreed that this subject should be taken up with the Society Secretaries and Treasurers at their meeting.
15. Progress of Fund Raising for History Program
Slack said that the first phase of the fund–raising program had been completed. This involved the sending of a letter to all physicists requesting their support of the program. This resulted in a substantial increase in the number of Friends. In 1971 there were 161 Friends who contributed a total of $5,800. As a result of the general mailing the number of Friends has increased to 640 in 1972 and the amount contributed has increased to $14,800. This does not include the large Heineman contribution.
The second phase of the program will include approaches to individuals and corporations for substantial gifts, larger than we anticipated from Friends. This phase is just getting started. The third phase will be an approach to foundations and similar sources for large funds. Koch indicated that we had already received favorable informal responses from two corporations.
16. Register of Physicists
Slack said there was no time nor need to discuss this subject in detail. He did ask all present to fill out and send in their Register questionnaires if they had not already done so.
The meeting was adjourned at 4:18 p.m.