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Dorothy Heyworth was born in England in 1901, the youngest of three children in family of modest means. Won scholarship to attend high school and The University of Manchester where she studied with W.L. Bragg. Came to U.S. as instructor at Mt. Holyoke College 1925-29. She studied at University of Chicago 1929-31 and received Ph.D. in 1932 for work done under Zachariassen. Joined the faculty of Wellesley College in 1931 and remained there until retirement, serving 12 years as chairman. Little time for research but did some at MIT on cosmic rays in 1930s. She comments upon opportunities for women in physics, suitable education for future women scientists and the joys of teaching.
Born in Oregon 1912, entered Purdue University, 1932, studying solid state physics, teaching assistant work with Lothar Nordheim on crystal structure, 1937; Ph.D. thesis, 1937 (published 1940); physics department under Karl Lark-Horovitz grows in the 1930s, visiting lecturers (refugees from Germany and Europe: Lothar Nordheim, Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner). First cyclotron (homemade), 1935. War work: basic research in germanium, rectification of crystals (Bethe), close connections with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Columbia University, University of Pennsylvania; Lark-Horovitz chose solid state physics as less sensitive field with respect to clearance; showed silicon-germanium intrinsic semiconductors, 1942; General Electric’s germanium interest; success interpreting resistivity and thermoelectric behavior in germanium, 1944. American Physical Society meeting intense interest in Purdue presentations, January 1946; the transistor, 1948 (William Shockley, Ralph Bray); how to grow germanium crystals, 1949; Esther Conwell’s thesis (Victor Weisskopf). Also prominently mentioned are: John Backus, Seymour Benzer, Hubert Maxwell James, A. A. Knowlton, K. W. Meissner, E. P. Miller, Ronald Smith, Herbert J. Yearian; and Purdue University Department of Physics.
Family background, education, and emergence of scientific orientation. Undergraduate years at Wellesley College (1912-1916); description of physics department. Assistant examiner in U.S. Patent Office during World War I. At MIT under E.B. Wilson as graduate student and laboratory assistant, then lab instructor (1920-24). Returned to MIT for doctoral work in 1928. Mathematical physics thesis under Norbert Wiener, while teaching at Wellesley. Depression years brought teaching position at Wilson College (1930-43), used Wellesley as model. Work on Zeeman Pattern earns her Guggenheim Fellowship (1949-50) at MIT and European labs. World War II years as head of OSRD British Report Section. Returned to Wilson (1945-56), worked part-time at National Science Foundation (1953-56). Retirement years including affiliation with U.S. Army and spectroscopic work at Harvard College Observatory. Comments on women in physics in U.S., her own opportunities, and teaching in general.
Family background, childhood and education up through college, all in Indiana; her graduate study, first at Battle Creek College (M.A.), then at the University of California under J. Robert Oppenheimer, Ph.D. 1933; also attended University of Michigan Summer Symposium in Theoretical Physics, 1929. Between her Ph.D. and her first college faculty position (Connecticut College for Women, 1937-1938) she held postdoctoral fellowships at University of California, Bryn Mawr College and the Institute for Advanced Study. With the exception of a period of war-time teaching at the University of Minnesota, she taught at Brooklyn College from 1938 to 1952, when she was fired for not cooperating with the McCarran Committee. During her period of unemployment she coauthored 2 textbooks, Classical Electricity and Magnetism (with Wolfgang Panofsky) and Principles of Physical Science (with Francis Bonner). In 1957 she was brought to Washington University in St. Louis by Edward U. Condon to run the Academic Year Institute program there. From 1962 until her retirement in 1972, she was professor of physics at the University of Chicago. She has long been active in the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) serving as its President in 1966 and as its Executive Officer in recent years; comments on AAPT's role and problems. She also gives her views on physics and physicists today, including the experience of women physicists in the U.S. Brief discussion of her work with J. Robert Oppenheimer and her political difficulties in the 1950s. Also prominently mentioned are: Robert d'Escourt Atkinson, David Bohm, Francis Bonner, Jay W. Buchta, Annie Jump Cannon, Suzanne Ellis, William Jordan, Robert Karplus, Henrietta Swan Leavitt, Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin, Frank Press, John Hasbrouck Van Vleck; Academic Year Institute, American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Association of Physics Teachers Commission on College Physics, American Physical Society, City College of City University of New York, Harvard College Observatory, Harvard Project Physics, National Science Foundation, Optical Society of America, Physical Sciences Study Committee, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, University of Chicago, and University of Michigan Summer Symposium in Theoretical Physics.
Mildred Allen was born in Massachusetts in 1894, the elder of two daughters of an MIT professor of civil engineering who had met her mother while working in New Mexico. She graduated from Vassar College in 1916 with training in mathematics and physics. Her Ph.D. in physics (1922) was granted by Clark University where she studied with A. G. Webster, but her thesis research was one at MIT. She taught at Mt. Holyoke, Wellesley and Oberlin Colleges during the 1920s and early 30s, as well as studying further at the University of Chicago and Yale. She did research at the Bartol Foundation, 1927-30, and at Harvard University, 1931-33. She then taught at Mt. Holyoke from 1933 until her retirement in 1959. Since then she has done additional research, most recently (paper published 1971) on the behavior of torsion pendulums especially during solar eclipses.