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Born in Oregon 1912, entered Purdue University, 1932, studying solid state physics, teaching assistant work with Lothar Nordheim on crystal structure, 1937; Ph.D. thesis, 1937 (published 1940); physics department under Karl Lark-Horovitz grows in the 1930s, visiting lecturers (refugees from Germany and Europe: Lothar Nordheim, Hans Bethe, Edward Teller, Eugene Wigner). First cyclotron (homemade), 1935. War work: basic research in germanium, rectification of crystals (Bethe), close connections with Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Columbia University, University of Pennsylvania; Lark-Horovitz chose solid state physics as less sensitive field with respect to clearance; showed silicon-germanium intrinsic semiconductors, 1942; General Electric’s germanium interest; success interpreting resistivity and thermoelectric behavior in germanium, 1944. American Physical Society meeting intense interest in Purdue presentations, January 1946; the transistor, 1948 (William Shockley, Ralph Bray); how to grow germanium crystals, 1949; Esther Conwell’s thesis (Victor Weisskopf). Also prominently mentioned are: John Backus, Seymour Benzer, Hubert Maxwell James, A. A. Knowlton, K. W. Meissner, E. P. Miller, Ronald Smith, Herbert J. Yearian; and Purdue University Department of Physics.
Early influences and education; A.B. from Willamette University in physics and math, 1926; fellowship and M.A. from Stanford University; graduate study at Columbia University on x-rays. Work at Bell Laboratories, starting 1929, on vacuum tube amplifiers with John B. Johnson; carbon microphones, semiconductors and the solar battery; work atmosphere and supervisors, Peter J. W. Debye; technical colloquia. History of “thermistors” and transistors. First color TV demonstration. Work during World War II on bombing using radar techniques and infrared. Organization of the Morgan-Shockley solid state group, 1946; appointment as department head at Bell Labs; academic appointment at Stanford University. Also prominently mentioned are: Joseph A. Becker, Hendrik Wade Bode, Walter Houser Brattain, Oliver E. Buckley, Chapin, Carl Christensen, Karl Kelchner Darrow, Clinton Joseph Davisson, Henry Eyring, James Brown Fisk, Harvey Fletcher, Gaylon T. Ford, Lester Halbert Germer, Gibney, Frederick Goucher, H. E. Ives, Frank Jewett, Mervin J. Kelly, Jack Morton, Foster Cary Nix, Ogg, Russell S. Ohl, Arnold Johannes Wilhelm Sommerfeld, Morris Tanenbaum, Gordon K. Teal, Russell Harrison Varian, Oliver Weisner, Dean E. Wooldridge; Pacific Academy in Newberg, and Stanford Solid State Industrial Affiliates.