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Born in Russia 1905, childhood in Japan; early education in Japan and in Shanghai; undergraduate and graduate studies at University of Berlin from 1922; protactinium work with Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner 1926-1927. Moves to the U.S. (Universal Oil Products Corp.); comments on Vladimir Ipatief; travels to Europe (Cavendish Laboratory, the Curie Institute in Paris, and Berlin); Columbia University from 1939, dismissal from the Manhattan Project; president of the Research Institute at Temple University for 13 years (later affiliate of the Franklin Institute); desert agriculture.
Fundamental work in developing the cyclotron and other accelerators. Early life, education prior to graduate studies at University of California at Berkeley from 1931; work with Ernest O. Lawrence at Berkeley and with Hans A. Bethe at Cornell University. Work on the 42-inch cyclotron at MIT in 1938, subsequent war work, later role in development of new high energy installations at Brookhaven National Laboratory, CERN and University of Cambridge.