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Research on nonlinear optics at the University of Michigan, 1961 to 1964, laser education at Berkeley, 1964-1966; color centers, laser damages, and dye lasers at Raytheon, 1966-1973, and medical applications at University of Southern California, after 1973. Experimental laser techniques and their evolution and the institutional context of research at each of these sites. Also prominently mentioned are: John A. Armstrong, Nicolaas Bloembergen, Colin Bowness, William B.
Bowness was technical director of the Raytheon division that placed the company's lasers and laser systems on the commercial market starting in the early 1960s. Here he discusses the interaction with the Research Division that brought the ruby laser to the attention of his section (Special Microwaves Devices Operation [SMDO]); the availability of components and accessories; early military and commercial markets.