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Early years in Vienna; emigration to Sydney, Australia as refugee; training there in theoretical physics, to 1946. Quantum field theory and social interactions under Rudolf Peierls at University of Birmingham, to 1949, and Hans Bethe at Cornell University; relations among U.S. field theorists; nuclear theory applied to experiments. Discovery of triple-alpha process at Caltech, 1951; move into astrophysics and social relations in Cornell physics and astronomy departments. Work on increasing variety of astrophysics problems, some related to cosmology, and on ionosphere; Arecibo observatory.
Origins of and affiliation with JASON; introduction to practical applications of physics through contact with Marvin Goldberger, Keith Brueckner, and Murray Gell-Mann at Los Alamos; move to Berkeley in 1957. Consulting with Goldberger and Gell-Mann for Convair, and reasons for their desire to form a private consulting firm; approach to the three by John Wheeler, Marvin Stern, and Charles Townes in order to form national security advisory group through Institute for Defense Analysis (IDA).