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In this interview Robert Bacher discusses science policy and physicists' involvement in it after World War II through 1970. Topics discussed include: General Leslie Groves; international control of atomic energy; Chauncey Star; Manson Benedict; Report on the International Control of Atomic Energy (Acheson–Lilienthal Report); Dean Acheson; David Lilienthal; J.
Deals mainly with DuBridge's professional affiliations starting before World War II as member of National Research Council (NRC). War work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Radiation Lab and relations with other groups, e.g., at the British Telecommunication Research Establishment (TRE). President of California Institute of Technology after Robert Millikan. Relationship with military. Establishment and chairmanship of President's Science Advisory Committee (PSAC); affiliations with PSAC and other organizations; PSAC's impact on science policy.
Early youth and education; B.A. in physics from University of Wisconsin; work in Naval Ordnance Laboratory in World War II; book with Ellis Johnson. First editor of Physics Today; work at Operations Research Office; move to Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) in 1956. Latter half of interview devoted to JASON: involvement from inception; executive secretary for seven years; impact on policy, types of projects, etc.
In this interview Gunnar Randers discusses his career and his involvement in science policy. The interview is based on Randers's autobiography, Light Years. Topics discussed include: his childhood in Oslo and Sauda; Svein Rosseland; University of Oslo Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics; astrophysics; Mount Wilson Observatory; Boy Scouting; nuclear processes in the Sun; Harvard University; Edwin Hubble; Martin Schwarzschild; California Institute of Technology; five dimensional relativity; H. P. Robertson; Albert Einstein; Yerkes Observatory; University of Chicago; S.
Born in Vienna in 1917; move to America at age 14; undergraduate and masters degrees at Caltech; relations with Harald U. Sverdrup at Scripps and Ph.D. there. Enlisted in Army during World War II; war work on submarine problems with Navy. Joined JASON at Keith Brueckner's invitation, 1961. Greater part of interview devoted to JASON: work, organization and external relations. Also prominently mentioned are: John Von Neumann; and United States Navy.
Family background and childhood in Germany, 1919-1934; emigration to U.S. and undergraduate study and life at Princeton University, 1934-1938. Graduate work at California Institute of Technology, 1938-1942; work with Jesse W. M. DuMond, course load, and importance of his thesis. War work at California Institute of Technology; problems because of enemy alien status; work on firing error indicators. War work at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory: atomic bomb explosion, feelings concerning implications.
<p>Then, the project finally got authorized in 1961 — but again after a rather amusing set of coincidences. At that time the Stanford project was sort of known as the Republican project because Eisenhower had proposed it to a Democratic Congress. At that time there was a project that the Democrats wanted in Congress which the Republican administration did not want. This was for the Hanford Reactor to generate power into the electrical net, because it was considered to be socialized electricity by the Republicans, to have power generated by a production reactor.
Piore's involvement in science research policies; establishment of the Office of Naval Research and its relationship with institutions such as the National Science Foundation, National Science Board, Atomic Energy Commission, and the President's Science Advisory Committee; funding of large-scale research (SLAC and other accelerator centers). Education, from high school (Ethical Culture Society, New York City) and college years at University of Wisconsin (Ph.D. in physics, 1935).
Second session deals mainly with science policy and science advising in the United States and Europe after World War II. Vice-president of International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), 1951-1954; chairman of U.S. NATO subcommittee (Henry Jackson); work for establishment of the NATO Science Council; U.S. delegate to the NATO Parliamentarians, Paris 1957. Discussion of his concern about scientific manpower; postwar Europe (Holland, France) leads to awareness of need for a national defense research laboratory in U.S.