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Scripps Institute of Oceanography. During the 1950s, high bottom heat flow, young age of “guyots” (flat-topped sea mountains), thinness of ocean sediments, patterns of fracture zones. Deep sea drilling program AMSOC and MOHO (1960-1970); Ocean magnetic surveys. Long-term measurements of carbon dioxide at Scripps by Keeling; greenhouse effect. International cooperation in oceanography via ICSU-SCOR. Circulation mixing and expansion of ocean waters; equatorial countercurrent.
Born in Mexico; interested in geology at a young age. Attended Harvard University, majoring in geology; formal physics education limited to half a term; early contacts with Edward M. Purcell, Julian R. Schwinger, and Nicolaas Bloembergen; James Thomson, Albert F. Burch, and George Kennedy most influential teachers; early interest in science policy.