PACS Reg00

PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 00

00. GENERAL
 
01. Communication, education, history, and philosophy
 
01.10.-m Announcements, news, and organizational activities
 
01.10.Cr Announcements, news, and awards
 
01.10.Fv Conferences, lectures, and institutes
 
01.10.Hx Physics organizational activities
 
01.20.+x Communication forms and techniques (written, oral, electronic, etc.)
 
01.30.-y Physics literature and publications
 
01.30.Bb Publications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.)
 
01.30.Cc Conference proceedings
 
01.30.Ee Monographs and collections
 
01.30.Kj Handbooks, dictionaries, tables, and data compilations
 
01.30.L- Physics laboratory manuals
 
01.30.la Secondary schools
 
01.30.lb Undergraduate schools
 
01.30.M- Textbooks
 
01.30.mm Textbooks for graduates and researchers
 
01.30.mp Textbooks for undergraduates
 
01.30.mr Textbooks for students in grades 9-12
 
01.30.mt Textbooks for students in grades K-8
 
01.30.Os Books of general interest to physics teachers
 
01.30.Rr Surveys and tutorial papers; resource letters
 
01.30.Tt Bibliographies
 
01.30.Vv Book reviews
 
01.30.Ww Editorials
 
01.30.Xx Publications in electronic media (for the topic of electronic publishing, see 01.20.+x)
 
01.40.-d Education
 
01.40.Di Course design and evaluation
 
01.40.E- Science in school
 
01.40.eg Elementary school
 
01.40.ek Secondary school
 
01.40.Fk Research in physics education
 
01.40.G- Curricula and evaluation
 
01.40.gb Teaching methods and strategies
 
01.40.gf Theory of testing and techniques
 
01.40.Ha Learning theory and science teaching
 
01.40.J- Teacher training
 
01.40.jc Preservice training
 
01.40.jh Inservice training
 
01.50.-i Educational aids
 
01.50.F- Audio and visual aids
 
01.50.fd Audio devices
 
01.50.ff Films; electronic video devices
 
01.50.fh Posters, cartoons, art, etc.
 
01.50.H- Computers in education
 
01.50.ht Instructional computer use
 
01.50.hv Computer software and software reviews
 
01.50.Kw Techniques of testing
 
01.50.Lc Laboratory computer use (see also 01.50.Pa)
 
01.50.My Demonstration experiments and apparatus
 
01.50.Pa Laboratory experiments and apparatus (see also 01.50.Lc)
 
01.50.Qb Laboratory course design, organization, and evaluation
 
01.50.Rt Physics tournaments and contests
 
01.50.Wg Physics of toys
 
01.50.Zv Errors in physics classroom materials
 
01.52.+r National and international laboratory facilities
 
01.55.+b General physics
 
01.60.+q Biographies, tributes, personal notes, and obituaries
 
01.65.+g History of science
 
01.70.+w Philosophy of science
 
01.75.+m Science and society (for science and government, see 01.78.+p; for social issues regarding wind energy, see 88.50.Xy; for social issues regarding biomass energy, see 88.20.Y-)
 
01.78.+p Science and government (funding, politics, etc.) (see also 88.05.Jk Policy issues; resource assessment)
 
01.80.+b Physics of games and sports
 
01.85.+f Careers in physics and science
 
01.90.+g Other topics of general interest (restricted to new topics in section 01)
 
02. Mathematical methods in physics
 
02.10.-v Logic, set theory, and algebra
 
02.10.Ab Logic and set theory
 
02.10.De Algebraic structures and number theory
 
02.10.Hh Rings and algebras
 
02.10.Kn Knot theory
 
02.10.Ox Combinatorics; graph theory
 
02.10.Ud Linear algebra
 
02.10.Xm Multilinear algebra
 
02.10.Yn Matrix theory
 
02.20.-a Group theory (for algebraic methods in quantum mechanics, see 03.65.Fd; for symmetries in elementary particle physics, see 11.30.-j)
 
02.20.Bb General structures of groups
 
02.20.Hj Classical groups
 
02.20.Qs General properties, structure, and representation of Lie groups
 
02.20.Rt Discrete subgroups of Lie groups
 
02.20.Sv Lie algebras of Lie groups
 
02.20.Tw Infinite-dimensional Lie groups
 
02.20.Uw Quantum groups
 
02.30.-f Function theory, analysis
 
02.30.Cj Measure and integration
 
02.30.Em Potential theory
 
02.30.Fn Several complex variables and analytic spaces
 
02.30.Gp Special functions
 
02.30.Hq Ordinary differential equations
 
02.30.Ik Integrable systems
 
02.30.Jr Partial differential equations
 
02.30.Ks Delay and functional equations
 
02.30.Lt Sequences, series, and summability
 
02.30.Mv Approximations and expansions
 
02.30.Nw Fourier analysis
 
02.30.Oz Bifurcation theory (see also 47.20.Ky in fluid dynamics)
 
02.30.Px Abstract harmonic analysis
 
02.30.Rz Integral equations
 
02.30.Sa Functional analysis
 
02.30.Tb Operator theory
 
02.30.Uu Integral transforms
 
02.30.Vv Operational calculus
 
02.30.Xx Calculus of variations
 
02.30.Yy Control theory
 
02.30.Zz Inverse problems
 
02.40.-k Geometry, differential geometry, and topology (see also section 04 Relativity and gravitation)
 
02.40.Dr Euclidean and projective geometries
 
02.40.Ft Convex sets and geometric inequalities
 
02.40.Gh Noncommutative geometry
 
02.40.Hw Classical differential geometry
 
02.40.Ky Riemannian geometries
 
02.40.Ma Global differential geometry
 
02.40.Pc General topology
 
02.40.Re Algebraic topology
 
02.40.Sf Manifolds and cell complexes
 
02.40.Tt Complex manifolds
 
02.40.Vh Global analysis and analysis on manifolds
 
02.40.Xx Singularity theory (see also 05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and chaos)
 
02.40.Yy Geometric mechanics (see also 45.20.Jj in formalisms in classical mechanics)
 
02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics (see also section 05 Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems)
 
02.50.Cw Probability theory
 
02.50.Ey Stochastic processes
 
02.50.Fz Stochastic analysis
 
02.50.Ga Markov processes
 
02.50.Le Decision theory and game theory
 
02.50.Ng Distribution theory and Monte Carlo studies
 
02.50.Sk Multivariate analysis
 
02.50.Tt Inference methods
 
02.60.-x Numerical approximation and analysis
 
02.60.Cb Numerical simulation; solution of equations
 
02.60.Dc Numerical linear algebra
 
02.60.Ed Interpolation; curve fitting
 
02.60.Gf Algorithms for functional approximation
 
02.60.Jh Numerical differentiation and integration
 
02.60.Lj Ordinary and partial differential equations; boundary value problems
 
02.60.Nm Integral and integrodifferential equations
 
02.60.Pn Numerical optimization
 
02.70.-c Computational techniques; simulations (for quantum computation, see 03.67.Lx; for computational techniques extensively used in subdivisions of physics, see the appropriate section; for example, see 47.11.-j Computational methods in fluid dynamics)
 
02.70.Bf Finite-difference methods
 
02.70.Dh Finite-element and Galerkin methods
 
02.70.Hm Spectral methods
 
02.70.Jn Collocation methods
 
02.70.Ns Molecular dynamics and particle methods
 
02.70.Pt Boundary-integral methods
 
02.70.Rr General statistical methods
 
02.70.Ss Quantum Monte Carlo methods
 
02.70.Tt Justifications or modifications of Monte Carlo methods
 
02.70.Uu Applications of Monte Carlo methods (see also 02.50.Ng in probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics, and 05.10.Ln in statistical physics)
 
02.70.Wz Symbolic computation (computer algebra)
 
02.90.+p Other topics in mathematical methods in physics (restricted to new topics in section 02)
 
03. Quantum mechanics, field theories, and special relativity (see also section 11 General theory of fields and particles)
 
03.30.+p Special relativity
 
03.50.-z Classical field theories
 
03.50.De Classical electromagnetism, Maxwell equations (for applied classical electromagnetism, see 41.20.-q)
 
03.50.Kk Other special classical field theories
 
03.65.-w Quantum mechanics [see also 03.67.-a Quantum information; 05.30.-d Quantum statistical mechanics; 31.30.J- Relativistic and quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in atoms, molecules, and ions in atomic physics]
 
03.65.Aa Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space
 
03.65.Ca Formalism
 
03.65.Db Functional analytical methods
 
03.65.Fd Algebraic methods (see also 02.20.-a Group theory)
 
03.65.Ge Solutions of wave equations: bound states
 
03.65.Nk Scattering theory
 
03.65.Pm Relativistic wave equations
 
03.65.Sq Semiclassical theories and applications
 
03.65.Ta Foundations of quantum mechanics; measurement theory (for optical tests of quantum theory, see 42.50.Xa)
 
03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality (e.g. EPR paradox, Bell's inequalities, GHZ states, etc.) (for entanglement production and manipulation, see 03.67.Bg; for entanglement measures, witnesses etc., see 03.67.Mn; for entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg)
 
03.65.Vf Phases: geometric; dynamic or topological
 
03.65.Wj State reconstruction, quantum tomography
 
03.65.Xp Tunneling, traversal time, quantum Zeno dynamics
 
03.65.Yz Decoherence; open systems; quantum statistical methods (see also 03.67.Pp in quantum information; for decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg)
 
03.67.-a Quantum information (see also 42.50.Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements; 42.50.Ex Optical implementations of quantum information processing and transfer in quantum optics)
 
03.67.Ac Quantum algorithms, protocols, and simulations
 
03.67.Bg Entanglement production and manipulation (for entanglement in Bose-Einstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg)
 
03.67.Dd Quantum cryptography and communication security
 
03.67.Hk Quantum communication
 
03.67.Lx Quantum computation architectures and implementations
 
03.67.Mn Entanglement measures, witnesses, and other characterizations (see also 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality; 42.50.Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements in quantum optics)
 
03.67.Pp Quantum error correction and other methods for protection against decoherence (see also 03.65.Yz Decoherence; open systems; quantum statistical methods; for decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg)
 
03.70.+k Theory of quantized fields (see also 11.10.-z Field theory)
 
03.75.-b Matter waves (for atom interferometry, see 37.25.+k; see also 67.85.-d ultracold gases, trapped gases in quantum fluids and solids)
 
03.75.Be Atom and neutron optics
 
03.75.Dg Atom and neutron interferometry
 
03.75.Gg Entanglement and decoherence in Bose-Einstein condensates
 
03.75.Hh Static properties of condensates; thermodynamical, statistical, and structural properties
 
03.75.Kk Dynamic properties of condensates; collective and hydrodynamic excitations, superfluid flow
 
03.75.Lm Tunneling, Josephson effect, Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials, solitons, vortices, and topological excitations (see also 74.50.+r Tunneling phenomena; Josephson effects in superconductivity)
 
03.75.Mn Multicomponent condensates; spinor condensates
 
03.75.Nt Other Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena
 
03.75.Pp Atom lasers
 
03.75.Ss Degenerate Fermi gases
 
04. General relativity and gravitation (for astrophysical aspects, see 95.30.Sf Relativity and gravitation; for relativistic aspects of cosmology, see 98.80.Jk; for special relativity, see 03.30.+p)
 
04.20.-q Classical general relativity (see also 02.40.-k Geometry, differential geometry, and topology)
 
04.20.Cv Fundamental problems and general formalism
 
04.20.Dw Singularities and cosmic censorship
 
04.20.Ex Initial value problem, existence and uniqueness of solutions
 
04.20.Fy Canonical formalism, Lagrangians, and variational principles
 
04.20.Gz Spacetime topology, causal structure, spinor structure
 
04.20.Ha Asymptotic structure
 
04.20.Jb Exact solutions
 
04.25.-g Approximation methods; equations of motion
 
04.25.D- Numerical relativity
 
04.25.dc Numerical studies of critical behavior, singularities, and cosmic censorship
 
04.25.dg Numerical studies of black holes and black-hole binaries
 
04.25.dk Numerical studies of other relativistic binaries (see also 97.80.-d Binary and multiple stars in astronomy)
 
04.25.Nx Post-Newtonian approximation; perturbation theory; related approximations
 
04.30.-w Gravitational waves (see also 04.80.Nn Gravitational wave detectors and experiments)
 
04.30.Db Wave generation and sources
 
04.30.Nk Wave propagation and interactions
 
04.30.Tv Gravitational-wave astrophysics (see also 95.85.Sz Gravitational radiation, magnetic fields, and other observations in astronomy)
 
04.40.-b Self-gravitating systems; continuous media and classical fields in curved spacetime
 
04.40.Dg Relativistic stars: structure, stability, and oscillations (see also 97.60.-s Late stages of stellar evolution)
 
04.40.Nr Einstein-Maxwell spacetimes, spacetimes with fluids, radiation or classical fields
 
04.50.-h Higher-dimensional gravity and other theories of gravity (see also 11.25.Mj Compactification and four-dimensional models, 11.25.Uv D branes)
 
04.50.Cd Kaluza-Klein theories
 
04.50.Gh Higher-dimensional black holes, black strings, and related objects
 
04.50.Kd Modified theories of gravity
 
04.60.-m Quantum gravity (see also 11.25.-w Strings and branes; 11.15.Wx Topologically massive gauge theories, and 11.15.Yc Chern-Simons gauge theory)
 
04.60.Bc Phenomenology of quantum gravity
 
04.60.Cf Gravitational aspects of string theory
 
04.60.Ds Canonical quantization
 
04.60.Gw Covariant and sum-over-histories quantization
 
04.60.Kz Lower dimensional models; minisuperspace models
 
04.60.Nc Lattice and discrete methods
 
04.60.Pp Loop quantum gravity, quantum geometry, spin foams
 
04.60.Rt Topologically massive gravity (see also 11.15.Wx Topologically massive gauge theories, and 11.15.Yc Chern-Simons gauge theory)
 
04.62.+v Quantum fields in curved spacetime
 
04.65.+e Supergravity (see also 12.60.Jv Supersymmetric models; 11.15.Wx Topologically massive gauge theories, and 11.15.Yc Chern-Simons gauge theory)
 
04.70.-s Physics of black holes (see also 97.60.Lf—in astronomy)
 
04.70.Bw Classical black holes
 
04.70.Dy Quantum aspects of black holes, evaporation, thermodynamics
 
04.80.-y Experimental studies of gravity
 
04.80.Cc Experimental tests of gravitational theories
 
04.80.Nn Gravitational wave detectors and experiments (see also 95.55.Ym Gravitational radiation detectors; mass spectrometers; and other instrumentation and techniques)
 
04.90.+e Other topics in general relativity and gravitation (restricted to new topics in section 04)
 
05. Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems (see also 02.50.-r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics)
 
05.10.-a Computational methods in statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics (see also 02.70.-c in mathematical methods in physics)
 
05.10.Cc Renormalization group methods
 
05.10.Gg Stochastic analysis methods (Fokker-Planck, Langevin, etc.)
 
05.10.Ln Monte Carlo methods (see also 02.70.Tt, Uu in mathematical methods in physics; for Monte Carlo methods extensively used in subdivisions of physics, see the appropriate section; for example, see 52.65.Pp in plasma simulation)
 
05.20.-y Classical statistical mechanics
 
05.20.Dd Kinetic theory (see also 51.10.+y Kinetic and transport theory of gases)
 
05.20.Gg Classical ensemble theory
 
05.20.Jj Statistical mechanics of classical fluids (see also 47.10.-g General theory in fluid dynamics)
 
05.30.-d Quantum statistical mechanics (for quantum fluids aspects, see 67.10.Fj)
 
05.30.Ch Quantum ensemble theory
 
05.30.Fk Fermion systems and electron gas (see also 71.10.-w Theories and models of many-electron systems; see also 67.10.Db Fermion degeneracy in quantum fluids)
 
05.30.Jp Boson systems (for static and dynamic properties of Bose-Einstein condensates, see 03.75.Hh and 03.75.Kk; see also 67.10.Ba Boson degeneracy in quantum fluids)
 
05.30.Pr Fractional statistics systems (anyons, etc.)
 
05.30.Rt Quantum phase transitions (see also 64.70.Tg Quantum phase transitions in specific phase transitions; and 73.43.Nq Quantum phase transitions in Quantum Hall effects)
 
05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion (for fluctuations in superconductivity, see 74.40.-n; for statistical theory and fluctuations in nuclear reactions, see 24.60.-k; for fluctuations in plasma, see 52.25.Gj; for nonlinear dynamics and chaos, see 05.45.-a)
 
05.40.Ca Noise
 
05.40.Fb Random walks and Levy flights
 
05.40.Jc Brownian motion
 
05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and chaos (see also section 45 Classical mechanics of discrete systems; for chaos in fluid dynamics, see 47.52.+j; for chaos in superconductivity, see 74.40.De)
 
05.45.Ac Low-dimensional chaos
 
05.45.Df Fractals (see also 47.53.+n Fractals in fluid dynamics; 61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates in structure of solids)
 
05.45.Gg Control of chaos, applications of chaos
 
05.45.Jn High-dimensional chaos
 
05.45.Mt Quantum chaos; semiclassical methods
 
05.45.Pq Numerical simulations of chaotic systems
 
05.45.Ra Coupled map lattices
 
05.45.Tp Time series analysis
 
05.45.Vx Communication using chaos
 
05.45.Xt Synchronization; coupled oscillators
 
05.45.Yv Solitons (see 52.35.Sb for solitons in plasma; for solitons in acoustics, see 43.25.Rq—in Acoustics Appendix; see 42.50.Md, 42.65.Tg, 42.81.Dp for solitons in optics; see also 03.75.Lm in matter waves; for solitons in space plasma physics, see 94.05.Fg; for solitary waves in fluid dynamics, see 47.35.Fg)
 
05.50.+q Lattice theory and statistics (Ising, Potts, etc.) (see also 64.60.Cn Order-disorder transformations, and 75.10.Hk Classical spin models)
 
05.60.-k Transport processes
 
05.60.Cd Classical transport
 
05.60.Gg Quantum transport
 
05.65.+b Self-organized systems (see also 45.70.-n in classical mechanics of discrete systems)
 
05.70.-a Thermodynamics (see also section 64 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions, and section 65 Thermal properties of condensed matter; for chemical thermodynamics, see 82.60.-s; for thermodynamics of plasmas, see 52.25.Kn; for thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids, see 67.25.bd, and 67.30.ef; for thermodynamics of nanoparticles, see 82.60.Qr, and 65.80.-g; for thermodynamic processes in astrophysics, see 95.30.Tg; for thermodynamics in volcanology, see 91.40.Pc)
 
05.70.Ce Thermodynamic functions and equations of state (see also 51.30.+i Thermodynamic properties, equations of state in physics of gases; for equations of state of specific substances, see 64.30.-t; for equations of state of nuclear matter, and of neutron-star matter, see 21.65.Mn and 26.60.Kp, respectively; see also 95.30.Tg in astronomy; for thermodynamic properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Bt)
 
05.70.Fh Phase transitions: general studies (see also 05.30.Rt Quantum phase transitions in quantum statistical mechanics; 64.70.Tg Quantum phase transitions in specific phase transitions; 73.43.Nq Quantum phase transitions in quantum Hall effects; for superconductivity phase diagrams, see 74.25.Dw; for magnetic phase boundaries, see 75.30.Kz; for ferroelectric phase transitions, see 77.80.B-)
 
05.70.Jk Critical point phenomena (for quantum critical phenomena in superconductivity, see 74.40.Kb)
 
05.70.Ln Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics (see also 82.40.Bj Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
 
05.70.Np Interface and surface thermodynamics (see also 68.35.Md Surface thermodynamics, surface energies in surfaces and interfaces)
 
05.90.+m Other topics in statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems (restricted to new topics in section 05)
 
06. Metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures (for laser applications in metrology, see 42.62.Eh)
 
06.20.-f Metrology
 
06.20.Dk Measurement and error theory
 
06.20.F- Units and standards
 
06.20.fa Units
 
06.20.fb Standards and calibration
 
06.20.Jr Determination of fundamental constants
 
06.30.-k Measurements common to several branches of physics and astronomy
 
06.30.Bp Spatial dimensions (e.g., position, lengths, volume, angles, and displacements)
 
06.30.Dr Mass and density
 
06.30.Ft Time and frequency
 
06.30.Gv Velocity, acceleration, and rotation
 
06.30.Ka Basic electromagnetic quantities (see also 84.37.+q Measurements in electric variables)
 
06.60.-c Laboratory procedures
 
06.60.Ei Sample preparation (including design of sample holders)
 
06.60.Jn High-speed techniques (microsecond to femtosecond)
 
06.60.Mr Testing and inspecting procedures
 
06.60.Sx Positioning and alignment; manipulating, remote handling
 
06.60.Vz Workshop procedures (welding, machining, lubrication, bearings, etc.)
 
06.60.Wa Laboratory safety procedures (for national and international laboratory facilities, see 01.52.+r)
 
06.90.+v Other topics in metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures (restricted to new topics in section 06)
 
07. Instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy (see also each subdiscipline for specialized instrumentation and techniques)
 
07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics (for computers in education, see 01.50.H-, and 01.50.Lc; for quantum computation architectures, see 03.67.Lx; for optical computers, see 42.79.Ta; for computational and simulation techniques, see 02.70.-c in mathematical methods)
 
07.05.Bx Computer systems: hardware, operating systems, computer languages, and utilities
 
07.05.Dz Control systems
 
07.05.Fb Design of experiments
 
07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software
 
07.05.Kf Data analysis: algorithms and implementation; data management (for data analysis in nuclear physics, see 29.85.-c)
 
07.05.Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence
 
07.05.Pj Image processing (see also 42.30.Va in optics; 87.57.-s Medical imaging in biological and medical physics; 95.75.Tv Digitization techniques in astronomy)
 
07.05.Rm Data presentation and visualization: algorithms and implementation
 
07.05.Tp Computer modeling and simulation
 
07.05.Wr Computer interfaces (for nuclear physics applications, see 29.50.+v)
 
07.07.-a General equipment
 
07.07.Df Sensors (chemical, optical, electrical, movement, gas, etc.); remote sensing
 
07.07.Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.
 
07.07.Mp Transducers
 
07.07.Tw Servo and control equipment; robots
 
07.07.Vx Hygrometers; hygrometry
 
07.10.-h Mechanical instruments and equipment
 
07.10.Cm Micromechanical devices and systems [for micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), see 85.85.+j in electronic and magnetic devices; see also 81.07.Oj Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) in nanoscale materials and structures; see also 87.80.Ek Mechanical and micromechanical techniques; 87.85.Ox Biomedical instrumentation and transducers including micro-electro-mechanical systems in biological and medical physics]
 
07.10.Fq Vibration isolation
 
07.10.Lw Balance systems, tensile machines, etc.
 
07.10.Pz Instruments for strain, force, and torque
 
07.20.-n Thermal instruments and apparatus
 
07.20.Dt Thermometers
 
07.20.Fw Calorimeters (for calorimeters as radiation detectors, see 29.40.Vj)
 
07.20.Hy Furnaces; heaters
 
07.20.Ka High-temperature instrumentation; pyrometers
 
07.20.Mc Cryogenics; refrigerators, low-temperature detectors, and other low-temperature equipment
 
07.20.Pe Heat engines; heat pumps; heat pipes
 
07.30.-t Vacuum apparatus
 
07.30.Bx Degasification, residual gas
 
07.30.Cy Vacuum pumps
 
07.30.Dz Vacuum gauges
 
07.30.Hd Vacuum testing methods; leak detectors
 
07.30.Kf Vacuum chambers, auxiliary apparatus, and materials
 
07.35.+k High-pressure apparatus; shock tubes; diamond anvil cells
 
07.50.-e Electrical and electronic instruments and components
 
07.50.Ek Circuits and circuit components (see also 84.30.-r Electronic circuits and 84.32.-y Passive circuit components)
 
07.50.Hp Electrical noise and shielding equipment
 
07.50.Ls Electrometers
 
07.50.Qx Signal processing electronics (see also 84.40.Ua in radiowave and microwave technology; 87.85.Ng Biological signal processing in biomedical engineering)
 
07.55.-w Magnetic instruments and components
 
07.55.Db Generation of magnetic fields; magnets (for superconducting magnets, see 84.71.Ba; for beam focusing magnets, see 41.85.Lc in beam optics)
 
07.55.Ge Magnetometers for magnetic field measurements
 
07.55.Jg Magnetometers for susceptibility, magnetic moment, and magnetization measurements
 
07.55.Nk Magnetic shielding in instruments
 
07.57.-c Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave instruments and equipment (for infrared and radio telescopes, see 95.55.Cs, 95.55.Fw, and 95.55.Jz in astronomy; for biophysical spectroscopic applications, see 87.64.-t)
 
07.57.Hm Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources (see also 42.72.Ai Infrared sources in optics)
 
07.57.Kp Bolometers; infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave receivers and detectors (see also 85.60.Gz Photodetectors in electronic and magnetic devices, and 95.55.Rg Photoconductors and bolometers in astronomy)
 
07.57.Pt Submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave spectrometers; magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques
 
07.57.Ty Infrared spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques
 
07.60.-j Optical instruments and equipment (see also 87.64.M- Optical microscopy in biological and medical physics; for optical sources, see 42.72.-g; see also 42.79.-e Optical elements, devices and systems; for optoelectronic devices, see 85.60.-q; for optical telescopes, see 95.55.Cs; for photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic equipment in astronomy, see 95.55.Qf)
 
07.60.Dq Photometers, radiometers, and colorimeters
 
07.60.Fs Polarimeters and ellipsometers
 
07.60.Hv Refractometers and reflectometers
 
07.60.Ly Interferometers
 
07.60.Pb Conventional optical microscopes (for near-field scanning optical microscopes, see 07.79.Fc; for x-ray microscopes, see 07.85.Tt)
 
07.60.Rd Visible and ultraviolet spectrometers
 
07.60.Vg Fiber-optic instruments (see also 42.81.-i Fiber optics)
 
07.64.+z Acoustic instruments and equipment (see also 43.58.+z—in acoustics)
 
07.68.+m Photography, photographic instruments; xerography
 
07.75.+h Mass spectrometers (see also 82.80.Ms, 82.80.Nj, and 82.80.Rt in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
 
07.77.-n Atomic, molecular, and charged-particle sources and detectors
 
07.77.Gx Atomic and molecular beam sources and detectors (see also 37.20.+j Atomic and molecular beam sources and techniques, in atomic and molecular physics)
 
07.77.Ka Charged-particle beam sources and detectors (see also 29.40.-n Radiation detectors in nuclear physics)
 
07.78.+s Electron, positron, and ion microscopes; electron diffractometers
 
07.79.-v Scanning probe microscopes and components (see also 68.37.-d Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films)
 
07.79.Cz Scanning tunneling microscopes
 
07.79.Fc Near-field scanning optical microscopes
 
07.79.Lh Atomic force microscopes
 
07.79.Pk Magnetic force microscopes
 
07.79.Sp Friction force microscopes
 
07.81.+a Electron and ion spectrometers (see also 29.30.Dn Electron spectroscopy; 29.30.Ep Charged-particle spectroscopy in nuclear physics)
 
07.85.-m X- and γ-ray instruments (for x- and γ-ray telescopes, see 95.55.Ka in astronomy; for x-ray beams and x-ray optics, see 41.50.+h)
 
07.85.Fv X- and γ-ray sources, mirrors, gratings, and detectors
 
07.85.Jy Diffractometers
 
07.85.Nc X-ray and γ-ray spectrometers
 
07.85.Qe Synchrotron radiation instrumentation
 
07.85.Tt X-ray microscopes
 
07.87.+v Spaceborne and space research instruments, apparatus, and components (satellites, space vehicles, etc.) (for instrumentation for space plasma physics, ionosphere, and magnetosphere, see 94.80.+g; see also 95.55.-n and 95.40.+s in astronomy; for materials testing in space, see 81.70.Ha)
 
07.88.+y Instruments for environmental pollution measurements
 
07.89.+b Environmental effects on instruments (e.g., radiation and pollution effects) (for environmental effects on optical elements, devices, and systems, see 42.88.+h)
 
07.90.+c Other topics in instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy (restricted to new topics in section 07)
 

 

Please note that the AIP Thesaurus has replaced PACS  as an aid in indexing and retrieving scientific information. PACS® 2010  is the final version.