00. 
GENERAL 

01. 
Communication, education, history, and philosophy 

01.10.m 
Announcements, news, and organizational activities 

01.10.Cr 
Announcements, news, and awards 

01.10.Fv 
Conferences, lectures, and institutes 

01.10.Hx 
Physics organizational activities 

01.20.+x 
Communication forms and techniques (written, oral, electronic, etc.) 

01.30.y 
Physics literature and publications 

01.30.Bb 
Publications of lectures (advanced institutes, summer schools, etc.) 

01.30.Cc 
Conference proceedings 

01.30.Ee 
Monographs and collections 

01.30.Kj 
Handbooks, dictionaries, tables, and data compilations 

01.30.L 
Physics laboratory manuals 

01.30.la 
Secondary schools 

01.30.lb 
Undergraduate schools 

01.30.M 
Textbooks 

01.30.mm 
Textbooks for graduates and researchers 

01.30.mp 
Textbooks for undergraduates 

01.30.mr 
Textbooks for students in grades 912 

01.30.mt 
Textbooks for students in grades K8 

01.30.Os 
Books of general interest to physics teachers 

01.30.Rr 
Surveys and tutorial papers; resource letters 

01.30.Tt 
Bibliographies 

01.30.Vv 
Book reviews 

01.30.Ww 
Editorials 

01.30.Xx 
Publications in electronic media (for the topic of electronic publishing, see 01.20.+x) 

01.40.d 
Education 

01.40.Di 
Course design and evaluation 

01.40.E 
Science in school 

01.40.eg 
Elementary school 

01.40.ek 
Secondary school 

01.40.Fk 
Research in physics education 

01.40.G 
Curricula and evaluation 

01.40.gb 
Teaching methods and strategies 

01.40.gf 
Theory of testing and techniques 

01.40.Ha 
Learning theory and science teaching 

01.40.J 
Teacher training 

01.40.jc 
Preservice training 

01.40.jh 
Inservice training 

01.50.i 
Educational aids 

01.50.F 
Audio and visual aids 

01.50.fd 
Audio devices 

01.50.ff 
Films; electronic video devices 

01.50.fh 
Posters, cartoons, art, etc. 

01.50.H 
Computers in education 

01.50.ht 
Instructional computer use 

01.50.hv 
Computer software and software reviews 

01.50.Kw 
Techniques of testing 

01.50.Lc 
Laboratory computer use (see also 01.50.Pa) 

01.50.My 
Demonstration experiments and apparatus 

01.50.Pa 
Laboratory experiments and apparatus (see also 01.50.Lc) 

01.50.Qb 
Laboratory course design, organization, and evaluation 

01.50.Rt 
Physics tournaments and contests 

01.50.Wg 
Physics of toys 

01.50.Zv 
Errors in physics classroom materials 

01.52.+r 
National and international laboratory facilities 

01.55.+b 
General physics 

01.60.+q 
Biographies, tributes, personal notes, and obituaries 

01.65.+g 
History of science 

01.70.+w 
Philosophy of science 

01.75.+m 
Science and society (for science and government, see 01.78.+p; for social issues regarding wind energy, see 88.50.Xy; for social issues regarding biomass energy, see 88.20.Y) 

01.78.+p 
Science and government (funding, politics, etc.) (see also 88.05.Jk Policy issues; resource assessment) 

01.80.+b 
Physics of games and sports 

01.85.+f 
Careers in physics and science 

01.90.+g 
Other topics of general interest (restricted to new topics in section 01) 

02. 
Mathematical methods in physics 

02.10.v 
Logic, set theory, and algebra 

02.10.Ab 
Logic and set theory 

02.10.De 
Algebraic structures and number theory 

02.10.Hh 
Rings and algebras 

02.10.Kn 
Knot theory 

02.10.Ox 
Combinatorics; graph theory 

02.10.Ud 
Linear algebra 

02.10.Xm 
Multilinear algebra 

02.10.Yn 
Matrix theory 

02.20.a 
Group theory (for algebraic methods in quantum mechanics, see 03.65.Fd; for symmetries in elementary particle physics, see 11.30.j) 

02.20.Bb 
General structures of groups 

02.20.Hj 
Classical groups 

02.20.Qs 
General properties, structure, and representation of Lie groups 

02.20.Rt 
Discrete subgroups of Lie groups 

02.20.Sv 
Lie algebras of Lie groups 

02.20.Tw 
Infinitedimensional Lie groups 

02.20.Uw 
Quantum groups 

02.30.f 
Function theory, analysis 

02.30.Cj 
Measure and integration 

02.30.Em 
Potential theory 

02.30.Fn 
Several complex variables and analytic spaces 

02.30.Gp 
Special functions 

02.30.Hq 
Ordinary differential equations 

02.30.Ik 
Integrable systems 

02.30.Jr 
Partial differential equations 

02.30.Ks 
Delay and functional equations 

02.30.Lt 
Sequences, series, and summability 

02.30.Mv 
Approximations and expansions 

02.30.Nw 
Fourier analysis 

02.30.Oz 
Bifurcation theory (see also 47.20.Ky in fluid dynamics) 

02.30.Px 
Abstract harmonic analysis 

02.30.Rz 
Integral equations 

02.30.Sa 
Functional analysis 

02.30.Tb 
Operator theory 

02.30.Uu 
Integral transforms 

02.30.Vv 
Operational calculus 

02.30.Xx 
Calculus of variations 

02.30.Yy 
Control theory 

02.30.Zz 
Inverse problems 

02.40.k 
Geometry, differential geometry, and topology (see also section 04 Relativity and gravitation) 

02.40.Dr 
Euclidean and projective geometries 

02.40.Ft 
Convex sets and geometric inequalities 

02.40.Gh 
Noncommutative geometry 

02.40.Hw 
Classical differential geometry 

02.40.Ky 
Riemannian geometries 

02.40.Ma 
Global differential geometry 

02.40.Pc 
General topology 

02.40.Re 
Algebraic topology 

02.40.Sf 
Manifolds and cell complexes 

02.40.Tt 
Complex manifolds 

02.40.Vh 
Global analysis and analysis on manifolds 

02.40.Xx 
Singularity theory (see also 05.45.a Nonlinear dynamics and chaos) 

02.40.Yy 
Geometric mechanics (see also 45.20.Jj in formalisms in classical mechanics) 

02.50.r 
Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics (see also section 05 Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems) 

02.50.Cw 
Probability theory 

02.50.Ey 
Stochastic processes 

02.50.Fz 
Stochastic analysis 

02.50.Ga 
Markov processes 

02.50.Le 
Decision theory and game theory 

02.50.Ng 
Distribution theory and Monte Carlo studies 

02.50.Sk 
Multivariate analysis 

02.50.Tt 
Inference methods 

02.60.x 
Numerical approximation and analysis 

02.60.Cb 
Numerical simulation; solution of equations 

02.60.Dc 
Numerical linear algebra 

02.60.Ed 
Interpolation; curve fitting 

02.60.Gf 
Algorithms for functional approximation 

02.60.Jh 
Numerical differentiation and integration 

02.60.Lj 
Ordinary and partial differential equations; boundary value problems 

02.60.Nm 
Integral and integrodifferential equations 

02.60.Pn 
Numerical optimization 

02.70.c 
Computational techniques; simulations (for quantum computation, see 03.67.Lx; for computational techniques extensively used in subdivisions of physics, see the appropriate section; for example, see 47.11.j Computational methods in fluid dynamics) 

02.70.Bf 
Finitedifference methods 

02.70.Dh 
Finiteelement and Galerkin methods 

02.70.Hm 
Spectral methods 

02.70.Jn 
Collocation methods 

02.70.Ns 
Molecular dynamics and particle methods 

02.70.Pt 
Boundaryintegral methods 

02.70.Rr 
General statistical methods 

02.70.Ss 
Quantum Monte Carlo methods 

02.70.Tt 
Justifications or modifications of Monte Carlo methods 

02.70.Uu 
Applications of Monte Carlo methods (see also 02.50.Ng in probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics, and 05.10.Ln in statistical physics) 

02.70.Wz 
Symbolic computation (computer algebra) 

02.90.+p 
Other topics in mathematical methods in physics (restricted to new topics in section 02) 

03. 
Quantum mechanics, field theories, and special relativity (see also section 11 General theory of fields and particles) 

03.30.+p 
Special relativity 

03.50.z 
Classical field theories 

03.50.De 
Classical electromagnetism, Maxwell equations (for applied classical electromagnetism, see 41.20.q) 

03.50.Kk 
Other special classical field theories 

03.65.w 
Quantum mechanics [see also 03.67.a Quantum information; 05.30.d Quantum statistical mechanics; 31.30.J Relativistic and quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in atoms, molecules, and ions in atomic physics] 

03.65.Aa 
Quantum systems with finite Hilbert space 

03.65.Ca 
Formalism 

03.65.Db 
Functional analytical methods 

03.65.Fd 
Algebraic methods (see also 02.20.a Group theory) 

03.65.Ge 
Solutions of wave equations: bound states 

03.65.Nk 
Scattering theory 

03.65.Pm 
Relativistic wave equations 

03.65.Sq 
Semiclassical theories and applications 

03.65.Ta 
Foundations of quantum mechanics; measurement theory (for optical tests of quantum theory, see 42.50.Xa) 

03.65.Ud 
Entanglement and quantum nonlocality (e.g. EPR paradox, Bell's inequalities, GHZ states, etc.) (for entanglement production and manipulation, see 03.67.Bg; for entanglement measures, witnesses etc., see 03.67.Mn; for entanglement in BoseEinstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg) 

03.65.Vf 
Phases: geometric; dynamic or topological 

03.65.Wj 
State reconstruction, quantum tomography 

03.65.Xp 
Tunneling, traversal time, quantum Zeno dynamics 

03.65.Yz 
Decoherence; open systems; quantum statistical methods (see also 03.67.Pp in quantum information; for decoherence in BoseEinstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg) 

03.67.a 
Quantum information (see also 42.50.Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements; 42.50.Ex Optical implementations of quantum information processing and transfer in quantum optics) 

03.67.Ac 
Quantum algorithms, protocols, and simulations 

03.67.Bg 
Entanglement production and manipulation (for entanglement in BoseEinstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg) 

03.67.Dd 
Quantum cryptography and communication security 

03.67.Hk 
Quantum communication 

03.67.Lx 
Quantum computation architectures and implementations 

03.67.Mn 
Entanglement measures, witnesses, and other characterizations (see also 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality; 42.50.Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements in quantum optics) 

03.67.Pp 
Quantum error correction and other methods for protection against decoherence (see also 03.65.Yz Decoherence; open systems; quantum statistical methods; for decoherence in BoseEinstein condensates, see 03.75.Gg) 

03.70.+k 
Theory of quantized fields (see also 11.10.z Field theory) 

03.75.b 
Matter waves (for atom interferometry, see 37.25.+k; see also 67.85.d ultracold gases, trapped gases in quantum fluids and solids) 

03.75.Be 
Atom and neutron optics 

03.75.Dg 
Atom and neutron interferometry 

03.75.Gg 
Entanglement and decoherence in BoseEinstein condensates 

03.75.Hh 
Static properties of condensates; thermodynamical, statistical, and structural properties 

03.75.Kk 
Dynamic properties of condensates; collective and hydrodynamic excitations, superfluid flow 

03.75.Lm 
Tunneling, Josephson effect, BoseEinstein condensates in periodic potentials, solitons, vortices, and topological excitations (see also 74.50.+r Tunneling phenomena; Josephson effects in superconductivity) 

03.75.Mn 
Multicomponent condensates; spinor condensates 

03.75.Nt 
Other BoseEinstein condensation phenomena 

03.75.Pp 
Atom lasers 

03.75.Ss 
Degenerate Fermi gases 

04. 
General relativity and gravitation (for astrophysical aspects, see 95.30.Sf Relativity and gravitation; for relativistic aspects of cosmology, see 98.80.Jk; for special relativity, see 03.30.+p) 

04.20.q 
Classical general relativity (see also 02.40.k Geometry, differential geometry, and topology) 

04.20.Cv 
Fundamental problems and general formalism 

04.20.Dw 
Singularities and cosmic censorship 

04.20.Ex 
Initial value problem, existence and uniqueness of solutions 

04.20.Fy 
Canonical formalism, Lagrangians, and variational principles 

04.20.Gz 
Spacetime topology, causal structure, spinor structure 

04.20.Ha 
Asymptotic structure 

04.20.Jb 
Exact solutions 

04.25.g 
Approximation methods; equations of motion 

04.25.D 
Numerical relativity 

04.25.dc 
Numerical studies of critical behavior, singularities, and cosmic censorship 

04.25.dg 
Numerical studies of black holes and blackhole binaries 

04.25.dk 
Numerical studies of other relativistic binaries (see also 97.80.d Binary and multiple stars in astronomy) 

04.25.Nx 
PostNewtonian approximation; perturbation theory; related approximations 

04.30.w 
Gravitational waves (see also 04.80.Nn Gravitational wave detectors and experiments) 

04.30.Db 
Wave generation and sources 

04.30.Nk 
Wave propagation and interactions 

04.30.Tv 
Gravitationalwave astrophysics (see also 95.85.Sz Gravitational radiation, magnetic fields, and other observations in astronomy) 

04.40.b 
Selfgravitating systems; continuous media and classical fields in curved spacetime 

04.40.Dg 
Relativistic stars: structure, stability, and oscillations (see also 97.60.s Late stages of stellar evolution) 

04.40.Nr 
EinsteinMaxwell spacetimes, spacetimes with fluids, radiation or classical fields 

04.50.h 
Higherdimensional gravity and other theories of gravity (see also 11.25.Mj Compactification and fourdimensional models, 11.25.Uv D branes) 

04.50.Cd 
KaluzaKlein theories 

04.50.Gh 
Higherdimensional black holes, black strings, and related objects 

04.50.Kd 
Modified theories of gravity 

04.60.m 
Quantum gravity (see also 11.25.w Strings and branes; 11.15.Wx Topologically massive gauge theories, and 11.15.Yc ChernSimons gauge theory) 

04.60.Bc 
Phenomenology of quantum gravity 

04.60.Cf 
Gravitational aspects of string theory 

04.60.Ds 
Canonical quantization 

04.60.Gw 
Covariant and sumoverhistories quantization 

04.60.Kz 
Lower dimensional models; minisuperspace models 

04.60.Nc 
Lattice and discrete methods 

04.60.Pp 
Loop quantum gravity, quantum geometry, spin foams 

04.60.Rt 
Topologically massive gravity (see also 11.15.Wx Topologically massive gauge theories, and 11.15.Yc ChernSimons gauge theory) 

04.62.+v 
Quantum fields in curved spacetime 

04.65.+e 
Supergravity (see also 12.60.Jv Supersymmetric models; 11.15.Wx Topologically massive gauge theories, and 11.15.Yc ChernSimons gauge theory) 

04.70.s 
Physics of black holes (see also 97.60.Lf—in astronomy) 

04.70.Bw 
Classical black holes 

04.70.Dy 
Quantum aspects of black holes, evaporation, thermodynamics 

04.80.y 
Experimental studies of gravity 

04.80.Cc 
Experimental tests of gravitational theories 

04.80.Nn 
Gravitational wave detectors and experiments (see also 95.55.Ym Gravitational radiation detectors; mass spectrometers; and other instrumentation and techniques) 

04.90.+e 
Other topics in general relativity and gravitation (restricted to new topics in section 04) 

05. 
Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems (see also 02.50.r Probability theory, stochastic processes, and statistics) 

05.10.a 
Computational methods in statistical physics and nonlinear dynamics (see also 02.70.c in mathematical methods in physics) 

05.10.Cc 
Renormalization group methods 

05.10.Gg 
Stochastic analysis methods (FokkerPlanck, Langevin, etc.) 

05.10.Ln 
Monte Carlo methods (see also 02.70.Tt, Uu in mathematical methods in physics; for Monte Carlo methods extensively used in subdivisions of physics, see the appropriate section; for example, see 52.65.Pp in plasma simulation) 

05.20.y 
Classical statistical mechanics 

05.20.Dd 
Kinetic theory (see also 51.10.+y Kinetic and transport theory of gases) 

05.20.Gg 
Classical ensemble theory 

05.20.Jj 
Statistical mechanics of classical fluids (see also 47.10.g General theory in fluid dynamics) 

05.30.d 
Quantum statistical mechanics (for quantum fluids aspects, see 67.10.Fj) 

05.30.Ch 
Quantum ensemble theory 

05.30.Fk 
Fermion systems and electron gas (see also 71.10.w Theories and models of manyelectron systems; see also 67.10.Db Fermion degeneracy in quantum fluids) 

05.30.Jp 
Boson systems (for static and dynamic properties of BoseEinstein condensates, see 03.75.Hh and 03.75.Kk; see also 67.10.Ba Boson degeneracy in quantum fluids) 

05.30.Pr 
Fractional statistics systems (anyons, etc.) 

05.30.Rt 
Quantum phase transitions (see also 64.70.Tg Quantum phase transitions in specific phase transitions; and 73.43.Nq Quantum phase transitions in Quantum Hall effects) 

05.40.a 
Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion (for fluctuations in superconductivity, see 74.40.n; for statistical theory and fluctuations in nuclear reactions, see 24.60.k; for fluctuations in plasma, see 52.25.Gj; for nonlinear dynamics and chaos, see 05.45.a) 

05.40.Ca 
Noise 

05.40.Fb 
Random walks and Levy flights 

05.40.Jc 
Brownian motion 

05.45.a 
Nonlinear dynamics and chaos (see also section 45 Classical mechanics of discrete systems; for chaos in fluid dynamics, see 47.52.+j; for chaos in superconductivity, see 74.40.De) 

05.45.Ac 
Lowdimensional chaos 

05.45.Df 
Fractals (see also 47.53.+n Fractals in fluid dynamics; 61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates in structure of solids) 

05.45.Gg 
Control of chaos, applications of chaos 

05.45.Jn 
Highdimensional chaos 

05.45.Mt 
Quantum chaos; semiclassical methods 

05.45.Pq 
Numerical simulations of chaotic systems 

05.45.Ra 
Coupled map lattices 

05.45.Tp 
Time series analysis 

05.45.Vx 
Communication using chaos 

05.45.Xt 
Synchronization; coupled oscillators 

05.45.Yv 
Solitons (see 52.35.Sb for solitons in plasma; for solitons in acoustics, see 43.25.Rq—in Acoustics Appendix; see 42.50.Md, 42.65.Tg, 42.81.Dp for solitons in optics; see also 03.75.Lm in matter waves; for solitons in space plasma physics, see 94.05.Fg; for solitary waves in fluid dynamics, see 47.35.Fg) 

05.50.+q 
Lattice theory and statistics (Ising, Potts, etc.) (see also 64.60.Cn Orderdisorder transformations, and 75.10.Hk Classical spin models) 

05.60.k 
Transport processes 

05.60.Cd 
Classical transport 

05.60.Gg 
Quantum transport 

05.65.+b 
Selforganized systems (see also 45.70.n in classical mechanics of discrete systems) 

05.70.a 
Thermodynamics (see also section 64 Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions, and section 65 Thermal properties of condensed matter; for chemical thermodynamics, see 82.60.s; for thermodynamics of plasmas, see 52.25.Kn; for thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids, see 67.25.bd, and 67.30.ef; for thermodynamics of nanoparticles, see 82.60.Qr, and 65.80.g; for thermodynamic processes in astrophysics, see 95.30.Tg; for thermodynamics in volcanology, see 91.40.Pc) 

05.70.Ce 
Thermodynamic functions and equations of state (see also 51.30.+i Thermodynamic properties, equations of state in physics of gases; for equations of state of specific substances, see 64.30.t; for equations of state of nuclear matter, and of neutronstar matter, see 21.65.Mn and 26.60.Kp, respectively; see also 95.30.Tg in astronomy; for thermodynamic properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Bt) 

05.70.Fh 
Phase transitions: general studies (see also 05.30.Rt Quantum phase transitions in quantum statistical mechanics; 64.70.Tg Quantum phase transitions in specific phase transitions; 73.43.Nq Quantum phase transitions in quantum Hall effects; for superconductivity phase diagrams, see 74.25.Dw; for magnetic phase boundaries, see 75.30.Kz; for ferroelectric phase transitions, see 77.80.B) 

05.70.Jk 
Critical point phenomena (for quantum critical phenomena in superconductivity, see 74.40.Kb) 

05.70.Ln 
Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics (see also 82.40.Bj Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations in physical chemistry and chemical physics) 

05.70.Np 
Interface and surface thermodynamics (see also 68.35.Md Surface thermodynamics, surface energies in surfaces and interfaces) 

05.90.+m 
Other topics in statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems (restricted to new topics in section 05) 

06. 
Metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures (for laser applications in metrology, see 42.62.Eh) 

06.20.f 
Metrology 

06.20.Dk 
Measurement and error theory 

06.20.F 
Units and standards 

06.20.fa 
Units 

06.20.fb 
Standards and calibration 

06.20.Jr 
Determination of fundamental constants 

06.30.k 
Measurements common to several branches of physics and astronomy 

06.30.Bp 
Spatial dimensions (e.g., position, lengths, volume, angles, and displacements) 

06.30.Dr 
Mass and density 

06.30.Ft 
Time and frequency 

06.30.Gv 
Velocity, acceleration, and rotation 

06.30.Ka 
Basic electromagnetic quantities (see also 84.37.+q Measurements in electric variables) 

06.60.c 
Laboratory procedures 

06.60.Ei 
Sample preparation (including design of sample holders) 

06.60.Jn 
Highspeed techniques (microsecond to femtosecond) 

06.60.Mr 
Testing and inspecting procedures 

06.60.Sx 
Positioning and alignment; manipulating, remote handling 

06.60.Vz 
Workshop procedures (welding, machining, lubrication, bearings, etc.) 

06.60.Wa 
Laboratory safety procedures (for national and international laboratory facilities, see 01.52.+r) 

06.90.+v 
Other topics in metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures (restricted to new topics in section 06) 

07. 
Instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy (see also each subdiscipline for specialized instrumentation and techniques) 

07.05.t 
Computers in experimental physics (for computers in education, see 01.50.H, and 01.50.Lc; for quantum computation architectures, see 03.67.Lx; for optical computers, see 42.79.Ta; for computational and simulation techniques, see 02.70.c in mathematical methods) 

07.05.Bx 
Computer systems: hardware, operating systems, computer languages, and utilities 

07.05.Dz 
Control systems 

07.05.Fb 
Design of experiments 

07.05.Hd 
Data acquisition: hardware and software 

07.05.Kf 
Data analysis: algorithms and implementation; data management (for data analysis in nuclear physics, see 29.85.c) 

07.05.Mh 
Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence 

07.05.Pj 
Image processing (see also 42.30.Va in optics; 87.57.s Medical imaging in biological and medical physics; 95.75.Tv Digitization techniques in astronomy) 

07.05.Rm 
Data presentation and visualization: algorithms and implementation 

07.05.Tp 
Computer modeling and simulation 

07.05.Wr 
Computer interfaces (for nuclear physics applications, see 29.50.+v) 

07.07.a 
General equipment 

07.07.Df 
Sensors (chemical, optical, electrical, movement, gas, etc.); remote sensing 

07.07.Hj 
Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc. 

07.07.Mp 
Transducers 

07.07.Tw 
Servo and control equipment; robots 

07.07.Vx 
Hygrometers; hygrometry 

07.10.h 
Mechanical instruments and equipment 

07.10.Cm 
Micromechanical devices and systems [for micro and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), see 85.85.+j in electronic and magnetic devices; see also 81.07.Oj Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) in nanoscale materials and structures; see also 87.80.Ek Mechanical and micromechanical techniques; 87.85.Ox Biomedical instrumentation and transducers including microelectromechanical systems in biological and medical physics] 

07.10.Fq 
Vibration isolation 

07.10.Lw 
Balance systems, tensile machines, etc. 

07.10.Pz 
Instruments for strain, force, and torque 

07.20.n 
Thermal instruments and apparatus 

07.20.Dt 
Thermometers 

07.20.Fw 
Calorimeters (for calorimeters as radiation detectors, see 29.40.Vj) 

07.20.Hy 
Furnaces; heaters 

07.20.Ka 
Hightemperature instrumentation; pyrometers 

07.20.Mc 
Cryogenics; refrigerators, lowtemperature detectors, and other lowtemperature equipment 

07.20.Pe 
Heat engines; heat pumps; heat pipes 

07.30.t 
Vacuum apparatus 

07.30.Bx 
Degasification, residual gas 

07.30.Cy 
Vacuum pumps 

07.30.Dz 
Vacuum gauges 

07.30.Hd 
Vacuum testing methods; leak detectors 

07.30.Kf 
Vacuum chambers, auxiliary apparatus, and materials 

07.35.+k 
Highpressure apparatus; shock tubes; diamond anvil cells 

07.50.e 
Electrical and electronic instruments and components 

07.50.Ek 
Circuits and circuit components (see also 84.30.r Electronic circuits and 84.32.y Passive circuit components) 

07.50.Hp 
Electrical noise and shielding equipment 

07.50.Ls 
Electrometers 

07.50.Qx 
Signal processing electronics (see also 84.40.Ua in radiowave and microwave technology; 87.85.Ng Biological signal processing in biomedical engineering) 

07.55.w 
Magnetic instruments and components 

07.55.Db 
Generation of magnetic fields; magnets (for superconducting magnets, see 84.71.Ba; for beam focusing magnets, see 41.85.Lc in beam optics) 

07.55.Ge 
Magnetometers for magnetic field measurements 

07.55.Jg 
Magnetometers for susceptibility, magnetic moment, and magnetization measurements 

07.55.Nk 
Magnetic shielding in instruments 

07.57.c 
Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave instruments and equipment (for infrared and radio telescopes, see 95.55.Cs, 95.55.Fw, and 95.55.Jz in astronomy; for biophysical spectroscopic applications, see 87.64.t) 

07.57.Hm 
Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources (see also 42.72.Ai Infrared sources in optics) 

07.57.Kp 
Bolometers; infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave receivers and detectors (see also 85.60.Gz Photodetectors in electronic and magnetic devices, and 95.55.Rg Photoconductors and bolometers in astronomy) 

07.57.Pt 
Submillimeter wave, microwave and radiowave spectrometers; magnetic resonance spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques 

07.57.Ty 
Infrared spectrometers, auxiliary equipment, and techniques 

07.60.j 
Optical instruments and equipment (see also 87.64.M Optical microscopy in biological and medical physics; for optical sources, see 42.72.g; see also 42.79.e Optical elements, devices and systems; for optoelectronic devices, see 85.60.q; for optical telescopes, see 95.55.Cs; for photometric, polarimetric, and spectroscopic equipment in astronomy, see 95.55.Qf) 

07.60.Dq 
Photometers, radiometers, and colorimeters 

07.60.Fs 
Polarimeters and ellipsometers 

07.60.Hv 
Refractometers and reflectometers 

07.60.Ly 
Interferometers 

07.60.Pb 
Conventional optical microscopes (for nearfield scanning optical microscopes, see 07.79.Fc; for xray microscopes, see 07.85.Tt) 

07.60.Rd 
Visible and ultraviolet spectrometers 

07.60.Vg 
Fiberoptic instruments (see also 42.81.i Fiber optics) 

07.64.+z 
Acoustic instruments and equipment (see also 43.58.+z—in acoustics) 

07.68.+m 
Photography, photographic instruments; xerography 

07.75.+h 
Mass spectrometers (see also 82.80.Ms, 82.80.Nj, and 82.80.Rt in physical chemistry and chemical physics) 

07.77.n 
Atomic, molecular, and chargedparticle sources and detectors 

07.77.Gx 
Atomic and molecular beam sources and detectors (see also 37.20.+j Atomic and molecular beam sources and techniques, in atomic and molecular physics) 

07.77.Ka 
Chargedparticle beam sources and detectors (see also 29.40.n Radiation detectors in nuclear physics) 

07.78.+s 
Electron, positron, and ion microscopes; electron diffractometers 

07.79.v 
Scanning probe microscopes and components (see also 68.37.d Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films) 

07.79.Cz 
Scanning tunneling microscopes 

07.79.Fc 
Nearfield scanning optical microscopes 

07.79.Lh 
Atomic force microscopes 

07.79.Pk 
Magnetic force microscopes 

07.79.Sp 
Friction force microscopes 

07.81.+a 
Electron and ion spectrometers (see also 29.30.Dn Electron spectroscopy; 29.30.Ep Chargedparticle spectroscopy in nuclear physics) 

07.85.m 
X and γray instruments (for x and γray telescopes, see 95.55.Ka in astronomy; for xray beams and xray optics, see 41.50.+h) 

07.85.Fv 
X and γray sources, mirrors, gratings, and detectors 

07.85.Jy 
Diffractometers 

07.85.Nc 
Xray and γray spectrometers 

07.85.Qe 
Synchrotron radiation instrumentation 

07.85.Tt 
Xray microscopes 

07.87.+v 
Spaceborne and space research instruments, apparatus, and components (satellites, space vehicles, etc.) (for instrumentation for space plasma physics, ionosphere, and magnetosphere, see 94.80.+g; see also 95.55.n and 95.40.+s in astronomy; for materials testing in space, see 81.70.Ha) 

07.88.+y 
Instruments for environmental pollution measurements 

07.89.+b 
Environmental effects on instruments (e.g., radiation and pollution effects) (for environmental effects on optical elements, devices, and systems, see 42.88.+h) 

07.90.+c 
Other topics in instruments, apparatus, and components common to several branches of physics and astronomy (restricted to new topics in section 07) 
