Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Interviewed by
Ryan Hearty
Interview date
Location
La Jolla, California, U.S.A.
Abstract

Dr. Charles Kennel, director emeritus of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and (currently) Visiting Research Fellow at the Centre for Science and Policy, University of Cambridge, is interviewed at his home in La Jolla, California, by Ryan Hearty, oral history fellow at the American Institute of Physics. Kennel describes several milestones in his diverse career spanning industry, academia and government service. Subjects include: Kennel’s childhood in Boston; undergraduate studies at Harvard University; doctoral research at Princeton University, including work experience at Avco-Everett Research Laboratory; postdoc work at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, Italy; his academic career as professor and later chair of physics, as well as vice chancellor, at UCLA; his service as associate administrator at NASA; directing Scripps; and recent work in climate change policy.

Interviewed by
Tanya Levin
Interview date
Location
Hanover, Germany
Abstract

Topics include his childhood and early education; World War II experiences; decision to take up geology; availability of Western publications at Humboldt University; fixism and alternative ideas to plate tectonics; the International Geophysical Year and East German participation; National Oil company job; accused of being a Western spy; escape to West Germany and refuge camp experience; his work with the German Geological Survey; research on the North Sea; Indian Ocean Expedition and its importance to German marine science; trip to U.S. to meet American colleagues; differences between German and US marine sciences; recollections of Maurice Ewing; comparison of Scripps, Lamont, Woods Hole; participation on Atlantic Panel; MOHOLE Project; Joint Institute Deep Earth Sampling Program; German science policy; international cooperation in science; work on the Argentine volcanic margins; cooperation with Russian researchers; government scientific advising.

Interviewed by
Ronald Doel
Interview date
Location
Palisades, New York
Abstract

Born in Johnstown, NY on Dec. 26, 1933; discusses family life and childhood. Discusses his early interests in chemistry, physics, and astronomy; pursued scientific interests at Deerfield Academy. Describes his decision to go to Harvard during the McCarthy era; comments on his undergraduate education at Harvard, 1952-1956. Discusses his decision to major in geology; describes his geology coursework and summer field work in Colorado. Discusses his Navy service from 1956-58 and his travels during the International Geophysical Year; describes his decision to go to Ohio State for graduate school in geology. Comments on meeting other scientists through the Polar Institute; describes his growing interests in the Antarctic and how he came to his undergraduate thesis research. Discusses his post-graduate research at Columbia, Lamont, 196 1-1964; describes his coursework at Columbia and the teaching of Heezen, Wust, and Newell. Discusses how he became involved with the CLIMAP project; describes the collaborative nature of the CLIMAP research. Comments on the Emiliani/Ericson debate; compares the involvement of Lamont with Scripps and Woods Hole in the CLIMAP project.

Interviewed by
Jean Yehle
Interview date
Abstract

In this interview William Hay discusses topics such as: the University of Illinois and Enrico Fermi; Fritz Coche; Bob Ginsberg; biostratigraphy; Mohole project; deep sea drilling project; Maurice Ewing; Bruce Heezen; continental drift; University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Lamont-Doherty earth observatory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography; National Science Foundation; Cesare Emiliani; sea floor spreading; Warren Bixley; Max Bromwitz.

Interviewed by
Hans von Storch and Dirk Olbers
Interview date
Location
Center for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (ZMAW), Hamburg, Germany
Abstract

In this interview, Klaus Hasselmann discusses topics such as: his family background and how he became interested in physics; getting his PhD from the Max Planck Institute for Fluid Dynamics and Gottingen University; Walter Tollmien; University of California, San Diego Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics; Scripps Institute of Oceanography; Walter Munk; Norman Barber; John Miles; Hugh Bradner; George Backus; Klaus Wyrtki; Carl Eckart; Charles David Keeling; researching storms in the south pacific including Hawaii; Frank Snodgrass; Gordon Groves; measuring waves in the North Sea; becoming director of the newly formed Department of Theoretical Geophysics at the University of Hamburg; Donald Menzel; the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology; North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; Wolfgang Sell; Art Maxwell; Dirk Olbers; Heinz-Hermann Essen; Peter Muller; wave dynamics; Global Atmospheric Research Programme (GARP); Reimar Lust; Kirk Bryan; World Climate Research Programme; European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF); Lennart Bengtsson; El Nino predictions; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); carbon dioxide emissions; Hans Hinzpeter; plasma physics; quantum field theory.

Interviewed by
Ronald Doel
Interview date
Location
Falmouth, Massachusetts
Abstract

Topics include a discussion about the Ewing family and John's brother, Maurice Ewing; the development of underwater photography; his education at Harvard and Maurice's influence on his studies; the research vessels at Lamont and his experiences aboard them; trips to the Soviet Union and the Soviet earth scientists who came to Lamont, the development of the air gun, the Mohole drilling project; the Industrial Associates program at Lamont and its impact on funding; the relationships between Woods Hole, Scripps Institute and Lamont; Maurice Ewing's arguments against plate tectonics; Maurice's departure from Lamont to the University of Texas; deep sea drilling. Prominently mentioned are: Vladimir Belousov, Francis Birch, Bruce Heezen, Karl Hinz, Columbus Iselin, Xavier LePichon, Angelo Ludas, Frank Press, Manik Talwani, Gleb Udintsev, Joe Worzel.

Interviewed by
Ronald Doel
Interview date
Location
Falmouth, Massachusetts
Abstract

Topics include a discussion about the Ewing family and John's brother, Maurice Ewing; the development of underwater photography; his education at Harvard and Maurice's influence on his studies; the research vessels at Lamont and his experiences aboard them; trips to the Soviet Union and the Soviet earth scientists who came to Lamont, the development of the air gun, the Mohole drilling project; the Industrial Associates program at Lamont and its impact on funding; the relationships between Woods Hole, Scripps Institute and Lamont; Maurice Ewing's arguments against plate tectonics; Maurice's departure from Lamont to the University of Texas; deep sea drilling. Prominently mentioned are: Vladimir Belousov, Francis Birch, Bruce Heezen, Karl Hinz, Columbus Iselin, Xavier LePichon, Angelo Ludas, Frank Press, Manik Talwani, Gleb Udintsev, Joe Worzel.

Interviewed by
Ronald Doel
Interview date
Location
Falmouth, Massachusetts
Abstract

Topics include a discussion about the Ewing family and John's brother, Maurice Ewing; the development of underwater photography; his education at Harvard and Maurice's influence on his studies; the research vessels at Lamont and his experiences aboard them; trips to the Soviet Union and the Soviet earth scientists who came to Lamont, the development of the air gun, the Mohole drilling project; the Industrial Associates program at Lamont and its impact on funding; the relationships between Woods Hole, Scripps Institute and Lamont; Maurice Ewing's arguments against plate tectonics; Maurice's departure from Lamont to the University of Texas; deep sea drilling. Prominently mentioned are: Vladimir Belousov, Francis Birch, Bruce Heezen, Karl Hinz, Columbus Iselin, Xavier LePichon, Angelo Ludas, Frank Press, Manik Talwani, Gleb Udintsev, Joe Worzel.

Interviewed by
Spencer Weart
Interview date
Location
Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Abstract

Interview with Harmon Craig discusses work with Harold Urey's group at the University of Chicago (1941-1955, PhD 1951, Navy service 1944-1946, postdoctoral research 1951-1955); carbon isotope research, C13 and C14; George Callendar's CO2 research; work at the Scripps Institute (1955-2003) with Hans Suess, Roger Revelle; box models; nuclear waste and ocean turnover; helium 3 and 4 in the ocean; boat trip with Niels Bohr; Charles Keeling's CO2 analyses.

Interviewed by
Tanya Levin
Interview date
Location
Moscow, Russia
Abstract

In this interview, Marat Alexandervich Bogdanov discusses his life and career in oceanography. Topics discussed include: oceanography; Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO); Moscow State University; Walter Munk; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution; climate change; Mirny Station; The State Agency of Fisheries of Ukraine Southern Scientific Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography (YugNIRO); Bill Ricker.