Displaying 1 - 8 of total 8 results:
Session two is a joint interview with Robert Herman. Family background and early education, work at Carnegie Institution's Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, studies at George Washington University, wartime employment and studies, work with Navy on detection of mines; graduate studies with George Gamow while working at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, early universe theory, first encounter and later work with Robert Herman, interaction with physics community. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and L. R. Henrich, neglect of Alpher and Herman work by astronomical community; General Electric projects: supersonic flow, re-entry physics, the Talaria project; the Penzias/Wilson observations; honors, marriage. Miscellaneous recollections about youth in Washington, D.C., service on scientific committees, public education efforts, work at General Electric. Meeting of Alpher and Herman, their collaboration, cosmological theory, work with George Gamow, Edward Teller, Hans Bethe, Edward Condon, cosmic background radiation, controversy with steady-state adherents and others; systematic neglect of their work, nucleosynthesis in stars, reactions to awards, discussions with Arno A. Penzias at the time of Nobel Prize award (with Robert W. Wilson), correspondence with S. Pasternack about P. James Peeble's cosmology papers, Alpher paper on neutrino and photon background calculation, James Follin, C. Hayashi, Steven Weinberg's presentation in his book The First Three Minutes; current cosmological efforts, A. Zee's papers on cosmology, views on the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering, Fred Hoyle's recent writings. Also prominently mentioned are: Niels Henrik David Bohr, Albert Einstein, Richard Phillips Feynman, Lawrence Randolph Hafstad, Robert Hofstadter, Huntington, and H. P. Robertson.
Early life in the Cotswolds, England; Bristol University, 1943, and physics program during WWII; teachers include Nevill Mott and Edward Tyndall; effect of WWII; work with Harrie Massey on meson capture; University College, London; meets wife and growing contacts in astronomy, late 1940s; thesis, 1952; work in stellar atmosphere; visit to U.S. at Howard and Terkes, 1951-1953; Cavendish group under Martin Ryle, house theoretician; contact with William Fowler and growing interest in nucleosynthesis, 1954; fellowship at Pasadena, 1955; opinions on operation of major observatories, philosophy of cosmological research, reaction to steady state; problem of high energy sources, synchrotron radiation; belief structure in cosmology; Halton Arp’s work; Nuclear Processes in Astrophysics - B2FH; Yerkes Observatory, 1957; physics of galaxies, 1959. Also prominently mentioned are: Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade, Margaret Burbidge, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, Paul A. M. Dirac, Enrico Fermi, William Alfred Fowler, James Edward Gunn, Fred Hoyle, Martin Ryle, Allan Sandage, Maarten Schmidt, and Arthur Wolfe.
In this interview, Geoffrey Burbidge discusses his life and career. Topics discussed include: his family and childhood; Bristol University; Nevill Mott; University College, London; Harrie Massey; David Robert Bates; theoretical physics seminars at Cambridge University; Richard Feymnan; Freeman Dyson; Dick Dalitz; Abdus Salam; Nicholas Kemmer; becoming interested in astronomy and astrophysics via Margaret Burbidge; Royal Astronomical Society; Clive Gregory; research into stellar parallax, stellar atmospheres; Herbert Dingle; Auger effect; Otto Struve; Harvard University; Bart Bok; Donald Menzel; Harlow Shapley; Yerkes Observatory; development of radio astronomy; I. I. Rabi and big bang skepticism; Chandrasekhar; Gerard Kuiper; Enrico Fermi; Cavendish Laboratory, Martin Ryle; nucleosynthesis; Kapitza Club; Willie Fowler; Fred Hoyle; stellar evolution; steady state cosmology; red shift; Erwin Finlay-Freundlich; Max Born; Mount Wilson Observatory; Allan Sandage; Milt Humason; Ira Bowen; status at women at Hale observatories and at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech); Edwin Hubble; Walter Baade; synchrotron radiation; Rudolph Minkowski; Californium and supernovae; Halton Arp; Hans Suess; Vera Rubin's work on anisotropy; quasars; galaxy formation.
This interview with A. G. W. Cameron focuses on selected aspects of Cameron's research including nucleosynthesis and use of computers in research. Covers Cameron's different topics of research as well as various institutional appointments. Also comments on style of research and William Fowler's receipt of Nobel prize. Other topics discussed include: his family background and childhood, graduate work at the University of Saskatchewan, Leon Katz, photonuclear reactions, astrophysics, Paul Merrill, galactic evolution, Iowa State teaching nuclear physics, Chalk River, advising work for Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Department of Energy (DOE), hydrogen bomb, origin of the moon, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Stirling Colgate, nuclear astrophysics, teaching at Yale University, big bang theory, Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Fred Whipple, Leo Goldberg, Hans Suess, Harold Urey, William Fowler, Fred Hoyle, Geoffrey Burbidge, California Institute of Technology, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The interview focuses primarily on Peebles' many contributions to physical osmology: research on nucleosynthesis in the early universe in 1965, the theoretical and observational study of large scale structure formation in the 70s, and the development of the cold dark matter model and numerical simulations of structure formation, to mention the most prominent topics. Peebles describes his interactions with colleagues and other influences that shaped his research, as well as describing his own research style and the style of physicists he admires (notably that of his mentor, Bob Dicke).
He discusses in detail his response to and assessment of various other topics in cosmology: the anthropic principle, different types of dark matter,dark energy, inflationary cosmology, MOND, various structure formation scenarios, and quantum gravity. We briefly discuss the institutional support and funding for cosmology and how that has changed over the course of Peebles' career.
Peebles also describes several of the changes that have taken place in the practice of cosmology, from describing the introduction of numerical techniques and increased interaction in particle physics, to the increasing pace of research.
The interview focuses primarily on Peebles' many contributions to physical cosmology: research on nucleosynthesis in the early universe in 1965, the theoretical and observational study of large scale structure formation in the 70s, and the development of the cold dark matter model and numerical simulations of structure formation, to mention the most prominent topics. Peebles describes his interactions with colleagues and other influences that shaped his research, as well as describing his own research style and the style of physicists he admires (notabley that of his mentor, Bob Dicke). He discusses in detail his response to and assessment of various other topics in cosmology, MOND, various structure formation scenarios, and quantum gravity. Brief discussion of the institutional support and funding for cosmology and how that has changed over the course of Peebles' career. Peebles also describes several of the changes that have taken place in the practice of cosmology, from describing the introduction of numerical techniques and increased interaction in particle physics, to the increasing pace of research.
Family background; childhood reading of the encyclopedia; high school interest in athletics; flying model planes with father; early interest in great questions; religious background of parents; skepticism of organized religions; influence of uncles in decision to go to M.I.T.; education at M.I.T.; interest in math and physics; marriage in college; influence of Philip Morrison at M.I.T.; experimental work in nuclear physics as an undergraduate; influence of Icko Iben; move to Caltech in order to work with William Fowler; early preference for steady state and oscillating universe models; work with Gerry Wasserburg on nuclear chronology; history of merger of cosmology with particle physics; work on big bang nucleosynthesis; work on supernovae; history of Schramm's work with Gunn and Steigman on limiting the number of neutrino types; early communication between particle physicists and cosmologists in the 1970s; more discussion of work on big bang nucleosynthesis; establishment of the big bang model; importance of grand unified theories in explaining the photon-to-baryon ratio; inflationary universe model and its dependence on baryogenesis; work on neutrino masses and dark matter; introduction to and attitude toward the horizon problem; attitude toward the inflationary universe model; change in attitude toward the horizon problem as a result of the inflationary universe model; introduction to the inflationary universe model; reasons why the inflationary universe model has been so widely accepted; crucial that inflationary model left many problems to be worked out; attitude toward the inflationary universe model; introduction to and attitude toward the flatness problem; work with Gunn and Tinsely on showing that the universe is open; reaction to de Lapparent, Geller, and Huchra's work on large-scale inhomogeneities; work of Kirshner et al., Kron and Koo on large-scale structure; importance of the availability of telescope time in determining what problems astronomers are interested in and working on; importance of looking for the background instead of simply the most unusual objects; importance of visual images; importance of interacting with others; interplay of theory and observation in cosmology; difficulty in showing whether inflation is right or not; new areas opened up in cosmology in the last decade; outstanding problems in cosmology: large-scale structure, dark matter, and galaxy formation, nature of the vacuum, phase transitions; ideal design of the universe; question of whether the universe has a point.
Discusses her childhood and education; her developing interest in astronomy; studying with C. C. L. Gregory at the University of London Observatory and University College; her thesis work on the variations in Gamma Cassiopeia; meeting and marrying Geoffrey Burbidge; discrimination against women in the Carnegie Followships; the conflict between her work and having a family; the decision to go to the U.S. and Yerkes; use of the 82-inch telescope at McDonald; recollections of Shapley; disagreements between Kuiper and Urey; development of interest in abundance of elements; Baade's inspiration; offers for Geoffrey Burbidge from Manchester and Cambridge and move to Cambridge University; Geoffrey's differences with M. Ryle involving source of radio emission; meeting Willie Fowler; decision to return to the U. S. and Caltech; observing time at Mt Wilson; reactions of the old guard to women observers; collaborations with Baade on supernovae synthesis (1956); work on barium II stars; the search for permanent positions; advantage of position at Chicago/Yerkes/McDonald; move to Chicago and work on galaxies (1957-1962); observations of Centaurus A at 82-inch McDonald telescope; leaving Yerkes to go to La Jolla with Revelle; continued research on quasars and general research; cosmological implications of quasars; summer in Pasadena with Hoyle; development of Hoyle's Institute; challenges of Burbidge, Fowler, Hoyle concept of nucleosynthesis; Unsold's arguments; Arp's work; lack of satisfactory gravitational red shift models; university's relationship with Lick; infra-red work future of Greenwich and changes in the power structure in the British Astronomical establishment; offer of position as head of the Science Research Council; decision to take a leave of absence from La Jolla and accept; difficulties of the position and the decision as to where to locate the Northern Hemisphere Observatory; decision to return to the U. S.; American Astronomical Society presidency (1976-1978); AAS and the Equal Rights Amendment; her most satisfying work in nucleosynthesis, B2FH. Among those prominently mentioned: Arp, Baade, Bowen, Chandrasekhar, Greenstein, Hoyle, Kuiper, P. Merrill, H. Minkowski, R. Revelle, M. Ryle, Sandage, Shapley, Stromgren, Unsold, Urey.