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T. H. Maiman’s work on the ruby laser. Brief remarks on Hellwarth’s invention of Q-switching and on the discovery and interpretation of the stimulated Raman Effect. A paraphrase of remarks.
Covers period from 1948 through 1965, when Robert Hellwarth was an undergraduate at Princeton University, to 1952; a doctoral student at University of Oxford, to 1955; a postdoctoral student at California Institute of Technology, 1955-1956; a research scientist at Hughes Aircraft Company, 1956 on; and a visiting professor at the University of Illinois. Emphasis on the cross-fertilization of his electrical engineering and physics education; his collaboration with R. Feynman and F. Vernon on the theory of masers; Q-switching, and stimulated Raman scattering.
Composition of George F. Smith's laser group in the early 1960s; laser radar work at Malibu; work on Q-switching with Robert Hellwarth; discovery of the stimulated Raman effect, and some of the follow-up research; and the spirit of laser work at Hughes' laboratories in the early years.
Laser work at Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (AFCRL) (Rudolph Bradbury); early work on ruby lasers (Charles H. Townes, John Howard); Department of Defense (DOD) high-energy laser program; Steve Harris and Anthony DeMaria; optical masers and phased array lasers; CO2 laser at Avco-Everett; reform of service laboratories (Peter Schweitzer), 1960s; laser color centers and pump light attenuation (application to rangefinders); interaction with Office of Naval Research; spinoffs of laser research.
Narrative account of Woodbury's work at Hughes Aircraft Company (1951-1981) focusing on the design and development of the laser rangefinder in Carver's group, changes in the company structure that fostered the project, George Smith's Research Laboratory, contract work with McClung for Franford Arsenal and ARPA, Air Force contract work with W.K. Ng leading to discovery of stimulated Raman scattering, Second and Third International Quantum Electronics Conferences (1961, 1963), the first Mark II Colidar and other applications, licensing arrangements and production.