Nobel Prize 2022 Resources

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The Nobel Prize committee announced the 2022 Nobel Prize in physics Tuesday, Oct. 4, recognizing Alain Aspect, John F. Clauser, and Anton Zeilinger "for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities and pioneering quantum information science."

The Nobel Prize committee announced the 2022 Nobel Prize in chemistry Wednesday, Oct. 5, recognizing Carolyn R. Bertozzi, Morten Meldal, and K. Barry Sharpless "for the development of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry."

Below you'll find comments from AIP and AIP Publishing leadership, multimedia archives, and reporting on the prizes from Physics Today, populated throughout the day.

Physics Nobel Prize Resources from AIP

Michael Moloney, AIP's CEO: Quantum mechanics runs counter to many of the day-to-day ways we perceive the world around us. Nonetheless, experiment after experiment over the years — notably the experiments by today's laureates — have demonstrated not just the foundational applicability of the theory, but its tremendous power. Perhaps the most transformational application will be that of quantum computing, which opens up our access to doing complex calculations efficiently and quickly. Real-world applications may in time include developing drugs and vaccines faster, improving the efficiencies of batteries, increasing the accuracy of weather forecasts, and securing data with quantum encryption, among others.

Penelope Lewis, AIP Publishing's Chief Publishing Officer: This prize demonstrates the fundamental beauty of physics. With their pioneering experiments in quantum entanglement, Aspect, Clauser, and Zeilinger brought quantum mechanics out of its philosophical beginnings — dating back nearly a century — and into the present day. Their experiments laid the groundwork for incredible advances in quantum computing and cryptography, technologies with the potential to transform the modern world. It is a magnificent way to connect the past, present, and future of applied physics.

Explore key quantum issues and learn about the history and future of a world-changing field: The New Quantum Frontier

Physics Today Resources - access for a limited time

Alain Aspect 

Alain Aspect was born in 1947 in Agen, France, and studied at the École Normale Supérieure for Technical Education and at the Faculty of Sciences of Orsay at the University of Paris from 1965 to 1969. He earned a license in physics in 1967 and a diploma for advanced studies in optics in 1968. In 1969 he became an associate professor of physics at the Faculty of Sciences at Orsay and in 1971 defended his 3rd cycle thesis. From 1971 to 1974 he did his national service as a teacher in Cameroon, and on his return became an assistant professor at the École Normale Supérieure in Cachan. He completed his Ph.D. in 1983 with Philippe Grangier and Jean Dalibard and then in 1985 became the deputy laboratory director at the Collège de France. In 1992 Aspect founded the atomic optics group at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, where he is currently the Augustin Fresnel Professor at Institut d’Optique Graduate School and a distinguished scientist emeritus at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.  He has also been a professor at the École Polytechnique from 1994 up to the present. 

In 1982 Aspect tested Bell’s inequalities for pairs of entangled photons, closing a possible locality loophole. Then in 1986, with Philippe Grangier, he demonstrated wave-particle duality for a single photon. Since then, he has worked on the laser cooling of atoms, Bose-Einstein condensates, and quantum optics.  

Alain Aspect has won the 1999 Max Born Award, 2011 Herbert Walther Award, and 2013 Frederic Ives Medal/Jarus W. Quinn Prize from Optica, and in 2000 was named a Fellow of Optica. 

John F. Clauser 

John F. Clauser was born in Pasadena, California, in 1942.  He obtained his Bachelor’s degree at the California Institute of Technology in 1964, followed by his Master’s in 1966 and his Ph.D. in 1969, both from Columbia University. Following his Ph.D., he worked as a Postdoctoral Research Associate at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Berkeley. From 1975 to 1986 he was a Research Physicist and Group Leader at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, then a Senior Scientist at Science Applications International Corporation, and finally a Research Physicist at the University of California, Berkeley. Briefly in the 1980s and then from 1997 until the present he has been a Research Physicist, Consultant, and Inventor at J. F. Clauser & Associates. 

Throughout his career, John Clauser has worked on interferometry and quantum theory. In 1969 with Michael Horne, Abner Shimony, and Richard Holt, he proposed the first experimental test of Bell’s Theorem and in 1972 carried out the first experiment with Stuart Freedman to demonstrate a violation of Bell’s inequality. Over the course of the 1970s, Clauser continued to introduce additional constraints on Bell’s theorem including tests of local realism. In the 1980s and 1990s he developed and patented atom interferometers. 

Together with Alain Aspect and Anton Zeilinger, John F. Clauser won the Wolf Prize in Physics in 2010. 

Anton Zeilinger 

Anton Zeilinger was born in Reid im Innkreis, Austria, in 1945. From 1963 onward he studied physics and mathematics at the University of Vienna, earning his doctorate in 1971 under Helmut Rauch and staying to continue work as a research assistant at the Atominstitut Vienna. Briefly from 1977 to 1978 Zeilinger was a Fulbright Fellow at MIT where he worked under Clifford Shull. Returning to Austria, Zeilinger became an Assistant Professor at Atominstitut Vienna. From 1983 to 1990 Zeilinger worked as an Associate Professor at the Vienna University of Technology and then subsequently as Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Innsbruck from 1990-1999. He has held visiting appointments at multiple universities including MIT, the Technical University of Munich, Humboldt University Berlin, Oxford University and the Chaire International at the College de France. Since 1999 he has been associated with the University of Vienna, first as a Professor of Experimental Physics and since 2013 as a Professor Emeritus. He has also served as the Director and then Senior Scientist at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. 

Zeilinger is best known for his extensive work in the field of quantum information, including work on quantum communication, cryptography, computation, entanglement, interferometry, and quantum teleportation. In 1989, he discovered an entangled quantum state involving three particles with colleagues Daniel Greenberger and Michael Horne. He has since observed a four-photon entanglement and even higher dimensional quantum states. In 1997 Zeilinger conducted the first quantum teleportation of a single independent photon and in 1998 experimentally demonstrated entanglement swapping. He has also conducted multiple long-distance entanglement communication experiments. 

Anton Zeilinger won the Klopsteg Memorial Award of the American Association of Physics Teachers in 2004. He was also named a Fellow of the American Physical Society in 1999 and of Optica in 2021. 


Library Resources

Alain Aspect

John F. Clauser

Anton Zeilinger

On Quantum


AIP Publishing Resources

Below you will find links to relevant works from AIP Publishing, freely available to read for a limited time.

Articles by Alain Aspect

Influence of gold coating and interplate voltage on the performance of chevron micro-channel plates for temporally and spatially resolved single particle detection 
A.L. Hoendervanger, D. Clément, A. Aspect, C.I. Westbrook, D. Dowek, Y.J. Picard, and D. Boiron 
Review of Scientific Instruments 84, 023307 (2013)

Recent Advances in Subrecoil Laser Cooling
John Lawalla, François Bardou, Jean‐Philippe Bouchaud, Bruno Saubamea, Nick Bigelow, Michèle Leduc, Alain Aspect, and Claude Cohen‐Tannoudji
AIP Conference Proceedings 323, 193 (1994)

Articles by Anton Zeilinger

Experimental photonic state engineering and quantum control of two optical qubits
Stefanie Barz, Xiao‐song Ma, Borivoje Dakic, Anton Zeilinger, and Philip Walther
AIP Conference Proceedings 1363, 13 (2011)

How to create and detect 𝑁-dimensional entangled photons with an active phase hologram
Martin Stütz, Simon Gröblacher, Thomas Jennewein, and Anton Zeilinger
Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261114 (2007)

A fast and compact quantum random number generator             
Thomas Jennewein, Ulrich Achleitner, Gregor Weihs, Harald Weinfurter, and Anton Zeilinger
Review of Scientific Instruments 71, 1675 (2000)


Applied Physics Letters Special Collection

Applied Physics Letters launched a section on Quantum Technologies in 2020 with this special collection, focused on developments in the field of correlated photon-pair sources and their applications, that has been made feely available to read:

Applied Physics Letters welcomes papers in Quantum Technologies 
Lesley F. Cohen, Editor-in-Chief 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 010401 (2020)

Special Topic: Quantum sensing with correlated light sources 
Alex S. Clark, Maria Chekhova, Jonathan C.F. Matthews, John G. Rarity, and Rupert F. Oulton 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 118, 060401 (2021)

How many photons does it take to form an image? 
Steven D. Johnson, Paul-Antoine Moreau, Thomas Gregory, and Miles J. Padgett
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 260504 (2020)

Interferometric two-photon-absorption spectroscopy with three entangled photons 
Lyuzhou Ye and Shaul Mukamel 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 174003 (2020)

Two-photon phase-sensing with single-photon detection 
Panagiotis Vergyris, Charles Babin, Raphael Nold, Elie Gouzien, Harald Herrmann, Christine Silberhorn, Olivier Alibart, Sébastien Tanzilli, and Florian Kaiser 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 024001 (2020)

Broadband generation of photon-pairs from a CMOS compatible device 
K. Sugiura, Z. Yin, R. Okamoto, L. Zhang, L. Kang, J. Chen, P. Wu, S.T. Chu, B.E. Little, and S. Takeuchi 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 224001 (2020)

Multidimensional four-wave-mixing spectroscopy with squeezed light 
Zhenquan Yang, Prasoon Saurabh, Frank Schlawin, Shaul Mukamel, and Konstantin E. Dorfman 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 244001 (2020)

Improving resolution-sensitivity trade off in sub-shot noise quantum imaging 
I. Ruo-Berchera, A. Meda, E. Losero, A. Avella, N. Samantaray, and M. Genovese 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 214001 (2020)

Quantum-enhanced stimulated emission detection for label-free microscopy 
Gil Triginer Garces, Helen M. Chrzanowski, Shakib Daryanoosh, Valerian Thiel, Anna L. Marchant, Raj B. Patel, Peter C. Humphreys, Animesh Datta, and Ian A. Walmsley 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 024002 (2020)

Squeezed light induced two-photon absorption fluorescence of fluorescein biomarkers 
Tian Li, Fu Li, Charles Altuzarra, Anton Classen, and Girish S. Agarwal 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 254001 (2020)

Quantum dense metrology by an SU(2)-in-SU(1,1) nested interferometer 
Wei Du, J.F. Chen, Z.Y. Ou, and Weiping Zhang 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 024003 (2020)

Pinhole quantum ghost imaging 
Andres Vega, Sina Saravi, Thomas Pertsch, and Frank Setzpfandt 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 094003 (2020)

Multivariate discrimination in quantum target detection 
Peter Svihra, Yingwen Zhang, Paul Hockett, Steven Ferrante, Benjamin Sussman, Duncan England, and Andrei Nomerotski 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 044001 (2020)

Study of SPDC spectra to reveal temperature dependences for optical-terahertz biphotons 
T.I. Novikova, K. A. Kuznetsov, A.A. Leontyev, and G.Kh. Kitaeva 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 116, 264003 (2020)

A practical model of twin-beam experiments for sub-shot-noise absorption measurements 
Jason D. Mueller, Nigam Samantaray, and Jonathan C.F. Matthews 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 034001 (2020)

Quantum imaging for the semiconductor industry 
Anna V. Paterova, Hongzhi Yang, Zi S.D. Toa, and Leonid A. Krivitsky 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 054004 (2020)

Heralded spectroscopy with a fiber photon-pair source 
E. Pearce, C.C. Phillips, R.F. Oulton, and A.S. Clark 
Appl. Phys. Lett. 117, 054002 (2020)

Optical coherence tomography with a nonlinear interferometer in the high parametric gain regime 
Gerard J. Machado, Gaetano Frascella, Juan P. Torres, and Maria V. Chekhova 
Appl. Phys. Lett.117, 094002 (2020)

AIP Member Society Resources


Aspect, Clauser, Zeilinger awarded 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics for contributions to the foundations of quantum physics 
Nobel Prize Recognizes Entanglement Pioneers

American Physical Society

Nobel Prize in Physics Recognizes Quantum Science Advances

Other Member Societies and AIP Publishing Partners

Below you will find links to relevant works freely available to read for a limited time:

Articles by John F. Clauser

Von Neumann's Informal Hidden-Variable Argument 
John F. Clauser 
American Journal of Physics 39, 1095 (1971)

Reply to Dr. Wigner's Objections 
John F. Clauser 
American Journal of Physics 39, 1098 (1971)

Articles by Anton Zeilinger

Quantum interference experiments with large molecules 
Olaf Nairz, Markus Arndt, and Anton Zeilinger 
American Journal of Physics 71, 319 (2003)

Absorptive masks of light: A useful tool for spatial probing in atom optics 
Claudia Keller, Roland Abfalterer, Stefan Bernet, Markus K. Oberthaler, Jörg Schmiedmayer, and Anton Zeilinger 
Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures Processing, Measurement, and Phenomena 16, 3850 (1998)

Wave‐optical experiments with very cold neutrons 
Roland Gähler and Anton Zeilinger 
American Journal of Physics 59, 316 (1991)

Bell’s theorem without inequalities 
Daniel M. Greenberger, Michael A. Horne, Abner Shimony, and Anton Zeilinger 
American Journal of Physics 58, 1131 (1990)

The Planck stroll 
Anton Zeilinger 
American Journal of Physics 58, 103 (1990)

Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics 
J.S. BellMichael A. Horne, and Anton Zeilinger 
American Journal of Physics 57, 567 (1989)

Related Work

The 2022 Nobel Prize has diverse applications; the article below discusses the Bell’s theorem for the general public: 

Bringing home the atomic world: Quantum mysteries for anybody 
N.D. Mermin 
American Journal of Physics 49, 940 (1981)

Chemistry Nobel Prize resources

Below you will find links to relevant works from AIP Publishing, freely available to read for a limited time.

Single molecule DNA origami nanoarrays with controlled protein orientation
K. Cervantes-Salguero, M. Freeley, R.E.A. Gwyther, D.D. Jones, J.L. Chávez, and M. Palma
Biophysics Rev. 3, 031401 (2022)

Multistep molecular and macromolecular assembly for the creation of complex nanostructures
Dong Yang, Norihiko Sasaki, Takuma Shimada, Zhehui Jin, Masayuki Takeuchi, and Kazunori Sugiyasu 
Chem. Phys. Rev. 3, 021305 (2022)

Interplay of long-chain tetrazine derivatives and biomembrane components at the air–water interface 
Hiromichi Nakahara, Masayori Hagimori, Takahiro Mukai, and Osamu Shibata
Biophysics Rev. 3, 021303 (2022)

Chromene-based fluorescent probes for sensing and bioimaging
Kaiqing Ma, Lingling Zhao, Yongkang Yue, and Caixia Yin 
Chem. Phys. Rev. 3, 011302 (2022)

Multi-functional liquid crystal elastomer composites
Yuchen Wang, Jiaqi Liu, and Shu Yang 
Applied Physics Reviews 9, 011301 (2022)

Azide-based bioorthogonal chemistry: Reactions and its advances in cellular and biomolecular imaging
Samira Husen Alamudi, Xiao Liu, and Young-Tae Chang 
Biophysics Rev. 2, 021301 (2021)

Biological function following radical photo-polymerization of biomedical polymers and surrounding tissues: Design considerations and cellular risk factors
Gabriella C.J. Lindberg, Khoon S. Lim, Bram G. Soliman, Alexander Nguyen, Gary J. Hooper, Roger J. Narayan, and Tim B.F. Woodfield 
Applied Physics Reviews 8, 011301 (2021)

Janus nanoparticle synthesis: Overview, recent developments, and applications
Niloofar Safaie and Robert C. Ferrier Jr. 
Journal of Applied Physics 127, 170902 (2020)

Compact quantum dot surface modification to enable emergent behaviors in quantum dot-DNA composites
Abhilasha Dehankar, Thomas Porter, Joshua A. Johnson, Carlos E. Castro, and Jessica O. Winter 
J. Chem. Phys. 151, 144706 (2019)