ZrMnP and HfMnP single crystals are grown by a self-flux growth technique, and structural as well as temperature dependent magnetic and transport properties are studied. Both compounds have an orthorhombic crystal structure. ZrMnP and HfMnP are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures around 370 K and 320 K, respectively. The spontaneous magnetizations of ZrMnP and HfMnP are determined to be 1.9 μ B/f.u. and 2.1 μ B/f.u., respectively, at 50 K. The magnetocaloric effect of ZrMnP in terms of entropy change (ΔS) is estimated to be −6.7 kJ m−3 K−1 around 369 K. The easy axis of magnetization is  for both compounds, with a small anisotropy relative to the  axis. At 50 K, the anisotropy field along the  axis is ∼4.6 T for ZrMnP and ∼10 T for HfMnP. Such large magnetic anisotropy is remarkable considering the absence of rare-earth elements in these compounds. The first principle calculation correctly predicts the magnetization and hard axis orientation for both compounds, and predicts the experimental HfMnP anisotropy field within 25%. More importantly, our calculations suggest that the large magnetic anisotropy comes primarily from the Mn atoms, suggesting that similarly large anisotropies may be found in other 3d transition metal compounds.
Layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their interesting properties originating from an effective honeycomb lattice and strong spin-orbit coupling, and have potential applications in catalysis, lithium batteries, photonic, electronic, and valleytronic devices. Introducing magnetism in the TMDs can lead to the interesting functionalities such as magnetic order and carrier spin polarization with potential applications in spintronics. Here, we demonstrate an effective approach to induce robust ferromagnetism in MoS2 nanostructures by transition metal doping. After doping with a few percent Mn2+, the magnetism of MoS2 nanostructures is enhanced dramatically. Moreover, the magnetic properties are strongly temperature dependent, which is clearly different from the behavior of defect-induced magnetism. Our approach opens up the possibility for tuning the spin and magnetic properties in two-dimensional nanostructures.
Cross-section imaging and p-type doping assessment of ZnO/ZnO:Sb core-shell nanowires by scanning capacitance microscopy and scanning spreading resistance microscopy
ZnO/ZnO:Sb core-shell structured nanowires (NWs) were grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition method where the shell was doped with antimony (Sb) in an attempt to achieve ZnO p-type conduction. To directly investigate the Sb doping effect in ZnO, scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) were performed on the NWs' cross-sections mapping their two dimensional (2D) local electrical properties. Although no direct p-type inversion in ZnO was revealed, a lower net electron concentration was pointed out for the Sb-doped ZnO shell layer with respect to the non-intentionally doped ZnO core, indicating an evident compensating effect as a result of the Sb incorporation, which can be ascribed to the formation of Sb-related acceptors. The results demonstrate SCM/SSRM investigation being a direct and effective approach for characterizing radial semiconductor one-dimensional (1D) structures and, particularly, for the doping study on the ZnO nanomaterial towards its p-type realization.
The optical band gap and electronic structure of amorphous Al-Zr mixed oxides with Zr content ranging from 4.8 to 21.9% were determined using vacuum ultraviolet and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The light scattering by the nano-porous structure of alumina at low wavelengths was estimated based on the Mie scattering theory. The dependence of the optical band gap of the Al-Zr mixed oxides on the Zr content deviates from linearity and decreases from 7.3 eV for pure anodized Al 2O3 to 6.45 eV for Al-Zr mixed oxides with a Zr content of 21.9%. With increasing Zr content, the conduction band minimum changes non-linearly as well. Fitting of the energy band gap values resulted in a bowing parameter of ∼2 eV. The band gap bowing of the mixed oxides is assigned to the presence of the Zr d-electron states localized below the conduction band minimum of anodized Al 2O3.
Threshold for permanent refractive index change in crystalline silicon by femtosecond laser irradiation
An optical damage threshold for crystalline silicon from single femtosecond laser pulses was determined by detecting a permanent change in the refractive index of the material. This index change could be detected with unprecedented sensitivity by measuring the resonant wavelength shift of silicon integrated optics microring resonators irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses at 400 nm and 800 nm wavelengths. The threshold for permanent index change at 400 nm wavelength was determined to be 0.053 ± 0.007 J/cm2, which agrees with previously reported threshold values for femtosecond laser modification of crystalline silicon. However, the threshold for index change at 800 nm wavelength was found to be 0.044 ± 0.005 J/cm2, which is five times lower than the previously reported threshold values for visual change on the silicon surface. The discrepancy is attributed to possible modification of the crystallinity of silicon below the melting temperature that has not been detected before.
Nitridation of metal surfaces is of central importance in microelectronics and spintronics due to the excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of refractory nitrides. Here, we examine the chemical and structural modification of cobalt surfaces upon nitrogen plasma treatment, using in situ spectroscopic methods, as a method for synthesis of cobalt nitride thin films. We find that nitrogen is incorporated below the surface and forms an ultrathin film of CoN at temperatures as low as 50 °C. In addition, we observe the incorporation of oxygen and NO+ within the surface region. The nitrided cobalt surfaces are fully passivated by N, O, and NO+. These results provide a route for incorporation of cobalt nitride into a wide range applications.
Recent discovery of bulk insulating topological insulator (TI) Bi2– xSbxTe3– ySey paved a pathway toward practical device application of TIs. For realizing TI-based devices, it is necessary to contact TIs with a metal. Since the band-bending at the interface dominates the character of devices, knowledge of TIs' work function is of essential importance. We have determined the compositional dependence of the work function in Bi2– xSbxTe3– ySey by high-resolution photoemission spectroscopy. The obtained work-function values (4.95–5.20 eV) track the energy shift of the surface chemical potential seen by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The present result serves as a useful guide for developing TI-based electronic devices.
Ge/strained GeSn/Ge quantum wells are grown on a 300 mm Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition. The direct bandgap emission from strained GeSn is observed in the photoluminescence spectra and is enhanced by Al2O3/SiO2 passivation due to the field effect. The electroluminescence of the direct bandgap emission of strained GeSn is also observed from the Ni/Al2O3/GeSn metal-insulator-semiconductor tunneling diodes. Electroluminescence is a good indicator of GeSn material quality, since defects in GeSn layers degrade the electroluminescence intensity significantly. At the accumulation bias, the holes in the Ni gate electrode tunnel to the strained n-type GeSn layer through the ultrathin Al2O3 and recombine radiatively with electrons. The emission wavelength of photoluminescence and electroluminescence can be tuned by the Sn content.
Highly photoresponsive charge-sensitive infrared phototransistors with a dynamically controlled optical gate
Charge-sensitive infrared phototransistors (CSIPs) with a built-in field-effect-induced amplification mechanism have much higher infrared photoresponsivity (≥103 A/W) than conventional detectors, which is often restricted by background black-body radiation induced saturation. Here, we report that dynamically controlling the electrostatic potential of the photosensitive floating gate of a CSIP can counterbalance this background-induced saturation effect. As a result, the CSIP photoresponsivity can be improved by about one order of magnitude, reaching as high as ∼1.2×104 A/W to external blinking light. Our work suggests that time-domain manipulation could be an agile degree of freedom in optimizing the CSIP performance and provide insight into operating more general phototransistors for a wide variety of optoelectronic applications.
An exact variational method to calculate rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules with large amplitude motion
We report a new full-dimensional variational algorithm to calculate rovibrational spectra of polyatomic molecules using an exact quantum mechanical Hamiltonian. The rovibrational Hamiltonian of system is derived in a set of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates in the body-fixed frame. It is expressed in an explicitly Hermitian form. The Hamiltonian has a universal formulation regardless of the choice of orthogonal polyspherical coordinates and the number of atoms in molecule, which is suitable for developing a general program to study the spectra of many polyatomic systems. An efficient coupled-state approach is also proposed to solve the eigenvalue problem of the Hamiltonian using a multi-layer Lanczos iterative diagonalization approach via a set of direct product basis set in three coordinate groups: radial coordinates, angular variables, and overall rotational angles. A simple set of symmetric top rotational functions is used for the overall rotation whereas a potential-optimized discrete variable representation method is employed in radial coordinates. A set of contracted vibrationally diabatic basis functions is adopted in internal angular variables. Those diabatic functions are first computed using a neural network iterative diagonalization method based on a reduced-dimension Hamiltonian but only once. The final rovibrational energies are computed using a modified Lanczos method for a given total angular momentum J, which is usually fast. Two numerical applications to CH4 and H2CO are given, together with a comparison with previous results.
We report on an integration approach of III/V nano ridges on patterned silicon (Si) wafers by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Trenches of different widths (≤500 nm) were processed in a silicon oxide (SiO2) layer on top of a 300 mm (001) Si substrate. The MOVPE growth conditions were chosen in a way to guarantee an efficient defect trapping within narrow trenches and to form a box shaped ridge with increased III/V volume when growing out of the trench. Compressively strained InGaAs/GaAs multi-quantum wells with 19% indium were deposited on top of the fully relaxed GaAs ridges as an active material for optical applications. Transmission electron microcopy investigation shows that very flat quantum well (QW) interfaces were realized. A clear defect trapping inside the trenches is observed whereas the ridge material is free of threading dislocations with only a very low density of planar defects. Pronounced QW photoluminescence (PL) is detected from different ridge sizes at room temperature. The potential of these III/V nano ridges for laser integration on Si substrates is emphasized by the achieved ridge volume which could enable wave guidance and by the high crystal quality in line with the distinct PL.
Direct bandgap cross-over point of Ge1-ySny grown on Si estimated through temperature-dependent photoluminescence studies
Epitaxial Ge 1-ySny (y = 0%–7.5%) alloys grown on either Si or Ge-buffered Si substrates by chemical vapor deposition were studied as a function of Sn content using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL emission peaks from both the direct bandgap (Γ-valley) and the indirect bandgap (L-valley) to the valence band (denoted by ED and EID, respectively) were clearly observed at 125 and 175 K for most Ge 1-ySny samples studied. At 300 K, however, all of the samples exhibited dominant E D emission with either very weak or no measureable E ID emission. At 10 K, E D is dominant only for Ge 1-ySny with y > 0.052. From the PL spectra taken at 125 and 175 K, the unstrained indirect and direct bandgap energies were calculated and are plotted as a function of Sn concentration, the results of which show that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition occurs at ∼6.7% Sn. It is believed that the true indirect-to-direct bandgap cross-over of unstrained Ge 1-ySny might also take place at about the same Sn content at room temperature. This observation suggests that these Ge 1-ySny alloys could become very promising direct bandgap semiconductor materials, which will be very useful for the development of various new novel Si- and Ge-based infrared optoelectronic devices that can be fully integrated with current technology on a single Si chip.
The influence of the stoichiometry of amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) thin films used as the semiconducting channel in thin film transistors (TFTs) is investigated. A-ZTO has been deposited using remote-plasma reactive sputtering from zinc:tin metal alloy targets with 10%, 33%, and 50% Sn at. %. Optimisations of thin films are performed by varying the oxygen flow, which is used as the reactive gas. The structural, optical, and electrical properties are investigated for the optimised films, which, after a post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in air, are also incorporated as the channel layer in TFTs. The optical band gap of a-ZTO films slightly increases from 3.5 to 3.8 eV with increasing tin content, with an average transmission ∼90% in the visible range. The surface roughness and crystallographic properties of the films are very similar before and after annealing. An a-ZTO TFT produced from the 10% Sn target shows a threshold voltage of 8 V, a switching ratio of 108, a sub-threshold slope of 0.55 V dec−1, and a field effect mobility of 15 cm2 V−1 s−1, which is a sharp increase from 0.8 cm2 V−1 s−1 obtained in a reference ZnO TFT. For TFTs produced from the 33% Sn target, the mobility is further increased to 21 cm2 V−1 s−1, but the sub-threshold slope is slightly deteriorated to 0.65 V dec−1. For TFTs produced from the 50% Sn target, the devices can no longer be switched off (i.e., there is no channel depletion). The effect of tin content on the TFT electrical performance is explained in the light of preferential sputtering encountered in reactive sputtering, which resulted in films sputtered from 10% and 33% Sn to be stoichiometrically close to the common Zn2SnO4 and ZnSnO3 phases.
Waveform-preserved unidirectional acoustic transmission based on impedance-matched acoustic metasurface and phononic crystal
The waveform distortion happens in most of the unidirectional acoustic transmission (UAT) devices proposed before. In this paper, a novel type of waveform-preserved UAT device composed of an impedance-matched acoustic metasurface (AMS) and a phononic crystal (PC) structure is proposed and numerically investigated. The acoustic pressure field distributions and transmittance are calculated by using the finite element method. The subwavelength AMS that can modulate the wavefront of the transmitted wave at will is designed and the band structure of the PC structure is calculated and analyzed. The sound pressure field distributions demonstrate that the unidirectional acoustic transmission can be realized by the proposed UAT device without changing the waveforms of the output waves, which is the distinctive feature compared with the previous UAT devices. The physical mechanism of the unidirectional acoustic transmission is discussed by analyzing the refraction angle changes and partial band gap map. The calculated transmission spectra show that the UAT device is valid within a relatively broad frequency range. The simulation results agree well with the theoretical predictions. The proposed UAT device provides a good reference for designing waveform-preserved UAT devices and has potential applications in many fields, such as medical ultrasound, acoustic rectifiers, and noise insulation.
We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.
Effects of cation on electrical responses of ionic polymer-metal composite sensors at various ambient humidities
In this study, we investigated the effects of various cations on the electrical responses of ionic polymer–metal composite (IPMC) sensors at various ambient humidities. Four typical Au–Nafion IPMC samples were prepared with H+, Li+, Na +, and K+ cations. The voltage and current responses of the IPMCs were investigated under static and dynamic bending displacements. The orders of the voltage and current amplitudes were generally Li+ > Na + > K+ > H+ and depended on the cation transport properties and the water content. The static voltage response first increased to a peak and then slowly decreased to a steady state. A negative steady-state voltage was initially observed for the IPMC with H+ cations under near saturation conditions. The voltage amplitude increased monotonously with increasing frequency from 0.1 to 10 Hz at a high relative humidity (RH, ∼90%), first increased and then decreased at moderate humidity (RH, ∼50%), and decreased continuously at low humidity (RH, ∼20%). The static current response first rapidly increased to a peak and then quickly decayed. During current decay, free oscillation decay occurred at high humidity and attenuated with decreasing humidity. This was confirmed to be the result of cation movement in the IPMC. There are three necessary conditions for oscillation: sufficient migrated cations, high cation mobility, and high stiffness of the polymer network. For the dynamic current response, the amplitude increased with increasing frequency (0.1–10 Hz) and showed good linearity. The underlying physics, mainly involving cation forward migration and back diffusion caused by mechano-chemo-electrical coupling, was clarified.
This paper reports the results of modelling of the current-voltage characteristics (I-V) of a planar mid-wave Mercury Cadmium Telluride photodiode in a gate controlled diode experiment. It is reported that the diode exhibits nearly ideal I-V characteristics under the optimum surface potential leading to the minimal surface leakage current. Deviations from the optimum surface potential lead to non ideal I–V characteristics, indicating a strong relationship between the ideality factor of the diode with its surface leakage current. Diode's I–V characteristics have been modelled over a range of gate voltages from −9 V to −2 V. This range of gate voltages includes accumulation, flat band, and depletion and inversion conditions below the gate structure of the diode. It is shown that the I–V characteristics of the diode can be very well described by (i) thermal diffusion current, (ii) ohmic shunt current, (iii) photo-current due to background illumination, and (iv) excess current that grows by the process of avalanche multiplication in the gate voltage range from −3 V to −5 V that corresponds to the optimum surface potential. Outside the optimum gate voltage range, the origin of the excess current of the diode is associated with its high surface leakage currents. It is reported that the ohmic shunt current model applies to small surface leakage currents. The higher surface leakage currents exhibit a nonlinear shunt behaviour. It is also shown that the observed zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode over the entire gate voltage range is the sum of ohmic shunt resistance and estimated zero-bias dynamic resistance of the diode from its thermal saturation current.
Many in the microelectronics field view tunneling field-effect transistors (TFETs) as society's best hope for achieving a >10× power reduction for electronic devices; however, despite a decade of considerable worldwide research, experimental TFET results have significantly underperformed simulations and conventional MOSFETs. To explain the discrepancy between TFET experiments and simulations, we investigate the parasitic leakage current due to Auger generation, an intrinsic mechanism that cannot be mitigated with improved material quality or better device processing. We expose the intrinsic link between the Auger and band-to-band tunneling rates, highlighting the difficulty of increasing one without the other. From this link, we show that Auger generation imposes a fundamental limit on ultimate TFET performance.