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Updated: 43 min 52 sec ago

Winners of this year's MacArthur fellowships announced

23 September 2016
New York Times: On 22 September the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation announced the winners of its 2016 fellowship awards. Twenty-three people, among them writers, artists, scientists, and nonprofit leaders, are each to receive a grant of $625 000 distributed over five years. This year the youngest fellow is 31-year-old playwright Branden Jacobs-Jenkins, and the oldest is 67-year-old artist Joyce Scott. Some are already well known, such as Claudia Rankine, whose book Citizen (2014) has won numerous awards. The scientist awardees are computer scientists Subhash Khot and Bill Thies, bioengineers Rebecca Richard-Kortum and Manu Prakash, geobiologist Victoria Orphan, synthetic chemist Jin-Quan Yu, and microbiologist Dianne Newman.

New bill would require universities receiving federal funding to report professors’ sexual harassment

23 September 2016
BuzzFeed: To retain their federal grant money, universities may soon have to report sexual harassment allegations made against their professors. California representative Jackie Speier (D) has introduced a bill in the US House to amend the Higher Education Act of 1965 by requiring institutions of higher education to “notify certain Federal agencies when principal investigators at such institutions engage in discrimination on the basis of sex, and for other purposes.” Speier proposed the bill after several high-profile researchers, who had been awarded millions in research money, continued to work at their universities despite having a history of sexually harassing students and lab employees. The aim is to make universities accountable for any discriminatory and abusive behavior committed by their employees.

ALMA reveals trove of galaxies in Hubble Ultra Deep Field

23 September 2016
New Scientist: Several international teams of astronomers have now used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF) images captured in 2003–4 by the Hubble Space Telescope. Because of ALMA’s ability to see a different part of the electromagnetic spectrum than Hubble, it has not only revealed a new population of galaxies never before seen but also enabled the study of astronomical phenomena such as gas clouds and warm dust. Among the researchers’ findings is that the rate of star formation in a young galaxy is related to its total stellar mass. The scientists also found that star-forming gases increase in abundance the further back in time they look. The results will be published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and the Astrophysical Journal. More observations of the HUDF by ALMA are planned.

China’s space lab may not burn up completely when it falls to Earth in 2017

23 September 2016
BBC: Now that the mission of Tiangong 1 has been completed, China says it expects its first space station to reenter and burn up in Earth’s atmosphere sometime next year. However, Jonathan McDowell of Harvard University says it’s possible that some pieces, such as the rocket engines, are so dense that they will not burn up completely and could strike Earth’s surface. China's deputy director of the manned space engineering office, Wu Ping, has said that if some pieces fail to burn up, they are unlikely to cause significant damage. They will mostly likely land in the ocean or in an uninhabited area. The announcement regarding Tiangong 1 follows several months of speculation that China has lost control of the space station and doesn’t know for sure when or where it will come down.

Carbon speeds through the ocean’s twilight zone

23 September 2016
New measurements show how the sinking velocities of organic matter in the water vary with depth, region, and season.

Landmark Paris climate agreement poised to take effect by end of 2016

22 September 2016
Time: Now that 60 countries—including the world’s two largest carbon emitters, the US and China—have joined the Paris climate agreement, one of the two conditions needed for ratification has been met. The agreement calls for a minimum of 55 countries. The 60 countries account for almost 48% of global emissions, still shy of the 55% needed to satisfy the second condition. However, because of the number of countries that have committed to joining in 2016, its passage is virtually guaranteed, said United Nations secretary general Ban Ki-Moon at a 21 September meeting in New York. The speed with which the agreement has been accepted “is testament to the urgency of the crisis we all face,” he said in a statement.

Income inequality is growing among scientists, study says

22 September 2016
Nature: Over the past several decades, the salary gap has been expanding between top-tier scientists and those in the middle and lower tiers worldwide, according to a recent survey by Nature. In fact, the gap is wider in academia than in either industry or government. Besides complaining about low salaries, many respondents also noted a lack of career-advancement opportunities and raises. Contributing to the problem is the practice of competing for grants, which rewards a very few with a lot of money. Another factor is the growing number of non-tenure-track faculty, who are traditionally paid less than their tenure-track colleagues. Dissatisfaction appeared to be highest among scientists in Europe.

Solar steam generation without mirrors

22 September 2016
A combination of inexpensive materials collects and concentrates heat from the Sun.

Clinton and Trump: Where do they stand on science?

22 September 2016
The candidates’ positions on climate change and energy policy differ starkly. Comparing their views on other issues is harder.

Journalists boost book and movie telling black women mathematicians’ story

21 September 2016
Human computers contributed importantly to NASA’s aeronautics and space achievements.

US improves solar-storm predictions

21 September 2016
Nature: Because of the damage solar storms can inflict on electrical power grids, a new prediction model has been developed that pinpoints which areas on Earth will most likely be affected by a given storm. Until now, solar storms could be predicted with some confidence, but which regions would be affected could not. The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has upped its game by combining three models—one of Earth’s entire magnetosphere, one of its inner magnetosphere, and another for the upper atmosphere’s electrical activity—into a more sophisticated prediction system that draws data from a satellite located some 1.6 million km away. The new system can alert utility operators to impending storms about 20–60 minutes in advance.

Forensics techniques found not to be as accurate as thought

21 September 2016
Ars Technica: Because of problems with forensics practices raised in a 2009 report from the National Research Council, President Obama asked the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) to investigate the validity of forensic evidence. Among the techniques examined were hair, DNA, fingerprint, firearm marking, footwear, and bite-mark analyses. According to the PCAST report, which has just been released, all those techniques have problems. The least reliable is bite-mark analysis because the technique cannot reliably establish the source of a bite or determine whether it was inflicted by a human. DNA analysis, although found to be scientifically sound, can be prone to human error in its application. PCAST recommends that most of the techniques be put on a more firm scientific foundation, that better proficiency testing be devised for practitioners, and that more objective identification methods be developed.

Solving Antarctic fossil mystery reinforces climate change concerns

21 September 2016
Washington Post: How fossilized marine diatoms ended up on top of a mountain range in Antarctica has long puzzled scientists. The fossils date from the Pliocene era, about 2 million to 5 million years ago. When the fossils were first discovered in 1984, two theories were proposed. The so-called dynamicists said that the melting of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) raised ocean levels and that isostatic uplift caused new landmasses to rise; the combination caused the diatoms to be transported from the seafloor to the mountaintops. The stabilists countered that the ice sheet did not change; instead, powerful winds blew the diatoms from the ocean into the mountains. According to a new study by Reed Scherer of Northern Illinois University and his colleagues, what actually happened was a combination of both: The EAIS did retreat, but not as far as previously thought, and winds carried the diatoms the rest of the way. Besides solving the diatom mystery, the study also points up the vulnerability of the EAIS to global warming and raises concerns as current atmospheric carbon levels approach those of the Pliocene.

Samuel Wilson Marshall

20 September 2016

Disappearing star might be first known failed supernova

20 September 2016

Science News: In 2009, a star 19 million light-years away increased in brightness over the span of several months, eventually reaching a luminosity 1 million times that of the Sun. The star appeared to be going supernova. But instead of progressing to a tremendous explosion, the star suddenly disappeared. Thinking that the star had perhaps been hidden by a cloud of dust, Scott Adams of Caltech and his colleagues used the Hubble Space Telescope to examine the region of sky. Where the star had been, they found a faint IR signature, which they believe is evidence of material falling into a black hole that formed via the star's collapse. If the interpretation is correct, then this is the first star known to have become a black hole without first going supernova. Such a process has been described in theories that say some stars are so massive that the supernova process cannot overcome the stars' own gravity. If the star did become a black hole, the debris falling in is likely emitting x rays. Adams's team is awaiting observations from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

New record set for quantum teleportation

20 September 2016
New Scientist: Two research teams have separately demonstrated the transfer of quantum information over several kilometers of fiber-optic cables. Both setups involved three hypothetical participants: two who want to securely share information via quantum-entangled particles, and a third who serves as an intermediary by intercepting and measuring the particles such that their quantum states get swapped and the information they carry is transferred. By varying the position of the participant who entangles the particles, the two research teams achieved slightly different results. Wolfgang Tittel of the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada, and his colleagues sent quantum information over a distance of 6.2 km, while Jian-Wei Pan of the University of Science and Technology of China and his colleagues were able to extend the distance, to 12.5 km. The next step is to scale up such systems so they could provide secure communications over arbitrarily long distances.

Warhead upgrade costs could spiral, report warns

20 September 2016
Auditors urge further steps to tighten management controls over an $8 billion program to extend the life of a 1960s-era bomb.

Canada to charge provinces for carbon emissions

19 September 2016

Reuters: On 18 September Canadian environment minister Catherine McKenna announced that the government would put a price on carbon emissions from any of the country's provinces that do not adequately regulate emissions themselves. The policy will go into effect in October, McKenna said. She did not provide details about how the price would be set, what efforts the provinces are expected to make, or how the government would enforce the payments or penalties. She also did not address whether the current government would be altering the previous government's pledge to cut emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2030, a target that is likely unreachable without significant efforts by both the national and provincial governments.

Graphene membranes’ anomalous dynamics

19 September 2016
The ability to tune the random fluctuations could be used to minimize them or to harness them.

Rising carbon dioxide levels are good for plants—until the temperature increases

19 September 2016

Guardian: A common claim from those disputing the hazards of anthropogenic climate change is that rising carbon dioxide levels have led to increased global plant growth. There is some evidence supporting that claim. However, a new paper suggests that now that the global CO2 concentration has surpassed 400 ppm, the detrimental effects of rising temperatures will outweigh the benefits of further CO2 increases. Between 1998 and 2014, researchers at Stanford University grew 132 plots of common California flowers and grasses and varied the temperature, water, and CO2 and nitrogen levels. The results showed that plant growth increased with higher concentrations of nitrogen and decreased with rising temperatures. But beyond current global atmospheric levels, CO2 had no notable effect on plant growth.

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