The SRC led Task 1 in the Gender Gap in Science Project. The project was funding by the International Science Council and included eleven scientific partner organizations. This chapter from the final report describes our findings from the more than 32,000 respondents to the Global Survey of Scientists. We find that the gender gap is very real with women’s experiences consistently less positive than men’s. Other tasks included investigating the effect of gender in scientific publications and the compilation of best-practice initiatives.